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Welfare Implications of a Second Lender in the International Markets

The role of an extra lender in the international markets – such the IMF or another similar institution - has been widely covered in academic discussions and among policy makers. However, there is neither a clear answer nor a consensus about its welfare consequences. On the one hand, it is argued that the moral hazard consequences of an extra lender could be strong enough to offset any positive effect of an additional source of funding. On the other hand, it is argued that moral hazard consequences could be negligible and, therefore, the second lender’s presence could be welfare improving. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it provides a numerical perspective about the welfare effect of an active second lender. Second, it sheds light on the debt dynamics in the two-lender case. The main result is that the second lender is not beneficial from a welfare standpoint for a wide range of parameters. Without coordination, the estimates imply welfare losses that range from 1.5% to 6% of GDP, depending on the severity of the second lender’s penalties. On the other hand, if a coordination mechanism is imposed, such as the second lender acting as a lender of last resort, then the model will mimic a one-lender model where the first lender is crowded out from the market. l II) could be helpful on this task.

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Paper provided by Central Bank of Chile in its series Working Papers Central Bank of Chile with number 422.

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Date of creation: Jul 2007
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Handle: RePEc:chb:bcchwp:422
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  1. Andrew K. Rose, 2002. "One Reason Countries Pay their Debts: Renegotiation and International Trade," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 18, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
  2. Dirk Krueger & Harald Uhlig, 2003. "Competitive Risk Sharing Contracts with One-Sided Commitment," Levine's Bibliography 666156000000000407, UCLA Department of Economics.
  3. Aguiar, Mark & Gopinath, Gita, 2006. "Defaultable debt, interest rates and the current account," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 64-83, June.
  4. Stephen Morris & Hyun Song Shin, 2004. "Catalytic Finance: When Does It Work?," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm339, Yale School of Management.
  5. Jeremy I. Bulow & Kenneth Rogoff, 1987. "A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt," NBER Working Papers 2088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Kletzer, Kenneth M. & Wright, Brian D., 1998. "Sovereign Debt as Intertemporal Barter," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt4qg3c42v, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  7. William R. Zame, 1992. "Efficiency and the Role of Default When Security Markets are Incomplete," UCLA Economics Working Papers 673, UCLA Department of Economics.
  8. Cole, Harold L & Kehoe, Timothy J, 2000. "Self-Fulfilling Debt Crises," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(1), pages 91-116, January.
  9. Eaton, Jonathan & Gersovitz, Mark, 1981. "Debt with Potential Repudiation: Theoretical and Empirical Analysis," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(2), pages 289-309, April.
  10. Tauchen, George & Hussey, Robert, 1991. "Quadrature-Based Methods for Obtaining Approximate Solutions to Nonlinear Asset Pricing Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(2), pages 371-96, March.
  11. Phelan Christopher, 1995. "Repeated Moral Hazard and One-Sided Commitment," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 488-506, August.
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