IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_6209.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

What Makes Brain Drain More Likely? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Romuald Méango

Abstract

In Sub-Saharan Africa, high-skilled workers are 13 times more likely to migrate than low-skilled ones. This sheer number has fueled fears about “Brain Drain” as only 3% of the population obtains tertiary education. Although migration prospects might give incentives to invest in schooling, it is still unclear for which households they exist and whether these can compensate for the selection of high-skilled workers into migration. This papers measures the selection, incentive and net effects of emigration from DR Congo, Ghana and Senegal to Europe. Institutional contexts and household characteristics are strong determinants of the three effects. Rich households experience a strong selection of high-skilled workers into migration, thereby decreasing the average schooling level in the origin countries. However, stronger incentives to invest in schooling partly or fully compensate for this decrease. By contrast, poor households experience small selection and equally small incentives, except in Senegal, where they exhibit negative incentives to invest in early schooling. This is possibly due to low returns to secondary education in Europe and/or binding liquidity constraints.

Suggested Citation

  • Romuald Méango, 2016. "What Makes Brain Drain More Likely? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," CESifo Working Paper Series 6209, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_6209
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.cesifo.org/DocDL/cesifo1_wp6209.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Linguère Mbaye, 2014. "“Barcelona or die”: understanding illegal migration from Senegal," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-19, December.
    2. Batista, Catia & Lacuesta, Aitor & Vicente, Pedro C., 2012. "Testing the ‘brain gain’ hypothesis: Micro evidence from Cape Verde," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 32-45.
    3. Steinmayr, Andreas, 2014. "When a random sample is not random: Bounds on the effect of migration on household members left behind," Kiel Working Papers 1975, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    4. Michael Clemens & Satish Chand, 2008. "Human Capital Investment under Exit Options: Evidence from a Natural Quasi-Experiment," Working Papers 152, Center for Global Development, revised Feb 2019.
    5. Slesh A. Shrestha, 2017. "No Man Left Behind: Effects of Emigration Prospects on Educational and Labour Outcomes of Non‐migrants," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 127(600), pages 495-521, March.
    6. Murard, Elie, 2019. "The Impact of Migration on Family Left Behind: Estimation in Presence of Intra-Household Selection of Migrants," IZA Discussion Papers 12094, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Slesh A. Shrestha, 2017. "No Man Left Behind: Effects of Emigration Prospects on Educational and Labour Outcomes of Non‐migrants," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 127(600), pages 495-521, March.
    8. Girsberger, Esther Mirjam, 2017. "Migration, Education and Work Opportunities," IZA Discussion Papers 11028, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. repec:dau:papers:123456789/13410 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Philippe De Vreyer & François Roubaud, 2013. "Urban Labor Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 15808, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Slobodan DJADJIC & Frédéric DOCQUIER & Michael S. MICHAEL, 2019. "Optimal Education Policy and Human Capital Accumulation in the Context of Brain Drain," JODE - Journal of Demographic Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 85(4), pages 271-303, December.
    2. Marco Delogu & Frédéric Docquier & Joël Machado, 2018. "Globalizing labor and the world economy: the role of human capital," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 223-258, June.
    3. Björn NILSSON, 2019. "Education and migration: insights for policymakers," Working Paper 23ca9c54-061a-4d60-967c-f, Agence française de développement.
    4. Biavaschi, Costanza & Burzyński, Michał & Elsner, Benjamin & Machado, Joël, 2020. "Taking the skill bias out of global migration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    5. Michael A. Clemens, 2016. "Losing our minds? New research directions on skilled emigration and development," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(7), pages 1227-1248, October.
    6. Costanza Biavaschi & Michal Burzynski & Benjamin Elsner & Joël Machado, 2016. "The Gain from the Drain - Skill-biased Migration and Global Welfare," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1624, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    7. Anelí Bongersy & Carmen Díaz-Roldán & José L. Torres, 2018. "Brain Drain or Brain Gain? International labor mobility and human capital formation," Working Papers 18-04, Asociación Española de Economía y Finanzas Internacionales.
    8. Michael Clemens & Satish Chand, 2008. "Human Capital Investment under Exit Options: Evidence from a Natural Quasi-Experiment," Working Papers 152, Center for Global Development, revised Feb 2019.
    9. Bertoli, Simone & Murard, Elie, 2020. "Migration and co-residence choices: Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    10. Saad, Ayhab F. & Fallah, Belal, 2020. "How educational choices respond to large labor market shocks: Evidence from a natural experiment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    11. Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq & Sharif, Iffath & Shrestha, Maheshwor, 2021. "Returns to International Migration: Evidence from a Bangladesh-Malaysia Visa Lottery," IZA Discussion Papers 14232, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2012. "Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(3), pages 681-730, September.
    13. Claire Naiditch & Radu Vranceanu, 2013. "A two-country model of high skill migration with public education," Working Papers hal-00779716, HAL.
    14. Chakra P. Acharya & Roberto Leon-Gonzalez, 2016. "International Remittances, Rural-Urban Migration, and the Quest for Quality Education: The Case of Nepal," GRIPS Discussion Papers 15-25, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    15. Antwi, James & Phillips, David C., 2013. "Wages and health worker retention: Evidence from public sector wage reforms in Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 101-115.
    16. Yao Pan, 2017. "The Impact of Removing Selective Migration Restrictions on Education: Evidence from China," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 52(3), pages 859-885.
    17. repec:hal:journl:hal-00779716 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Michael A. Clemens, 2011. "Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 83-106, Summer.
    19. Ha, Wei & Yi, Junjian & Zhang, Junsen, 2016. "Brain drain, brain gain, and economic growth in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 322-337.
    20. Giovanni Peri & William Ambrosini & Karin Mayr & Dragos Radu, 2012. "The Selection of Migrants and Returnees in Romania: Evidence and long-run implications," Working Papers 136, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
    21. Joanna M Clifton-Sprigg, 2019. "Out of sight, out of mind? The education outcomes of children with parents working abroad," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(1), pages 73-94.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    migration; brain drain; brain gain; Sub-Saharan Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_6209. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cesifde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Klaus Wohlrabe (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cesifde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.