IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Business Environment in the Transition


  • Wendy Carlin
  • Mark Schaffer


Following the collapse of planning, new small and medium-sized firms rapidly emerged in all transition economies. Using firm level data, we investigate the interaction between the widespread opportunities for new business activities such firms faced and their business environment. The business environment includes physical infrastructure, the availability of an educated labour force, provision of administrative and judicial services, the control of corruption and crime, and the stability of the macroeconomic environment. By comparing how different elements of the business environment affected firms in formerly planned economies with those in economies outside transition, we document not only the challenges faced by transition firms but also the effects of the planning legacy.

Suggested Citation

  • Wendy Carlin & Mark Schaffer, 2012. "The Business Environment in the Transition," CESifo Working Paper Series 3934, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3934

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carlin, Wendy & Schaffer, Mark & Seabright, Paul, 2013. "Soviet power plus electrification: What is the long-run legacy of communism?," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 116-147.
    2. Charles F. Manski, 1993. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 531-542.
    3. Carlin, Wendy & Schaffer, Mark E & Seabright, Paul, 2010. "A Framework for Cross-Country Comparisons of Public Infrastructure Constraints on Firm Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 7662, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    infrastructure; human capital; institutions; planned economy; transition; business environment;

    JEL classification:

    • D29 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Other
    • H49 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Other
    • M29 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics - - - Other
    • P21 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Planning, Coordination, and Reform


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3934. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Klaus Wohlrabe). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.