IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Ageing, Funded Pensions and the Dutch Economy


  • Lans Bovenberg
  • Thijs Knaap


This paper attempts to paint a coherent picture of the effects of ageing on a small, open, economy with large pension funds in different institutional settings. Quantitative scenarios are projected with an applied computable general equilibrium model with institutional details. We find that ageing leads to a tighter labor market, increasing costs for both pension funds and the government, and leaving the economy vulnerable to financial and further demographic shocks. We show that defined benefit pension arrangements can be destabilizing, but less so if an average-wage variable-indexation contract is chosen. Government can help by adopting a policy of tax smoothing, but the single most important determinant of the net burden of ageing is the eventual size of the increase in labor market participation of older workers. The intergenerational welfare effects of demographic shocks and changes in international interest rates are sizable and should be an integral part of the assessment of different policy instruments.

Suggested Citation

  • Lans Bovenberg & Thijs Knaap, 2005. "Ageing, Funded Pensions and the Dutch Economy," CESifo Working Paper Series 1403, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1403

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Axel Börsch-Supan & Alexander Ludwig & Joachim Winter, 2006. "Ageing, Pension Reform and Capital Flows: A Multi-Country Simulation Model," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(292), pages 625-658, November.
    2. Leon Bettendorf & R. Beetsma & P. Broer, 2000. "The Budgetary And Economic Consequences Of Ageing In The Netherlands," Computing in Economics and Finance 2000 372, Society for Computational Economics.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Jan-Maarten van Sonsbeek &, 2011. "Micro simulations on the effects of ageing-related policy measures: The Social Affairs Department of the Netherlands Ageing and Pensions Model," International Journal of Microsimulation, International Microsimulation Association, vol. 4(1), pages 72-99.
    2. Ann Barbara Bauer & Reiner Eichenberger, 2017. "Endogenous aging: How statutory retirement age drives human and social capital," CREMA Working Paper Series 2017-02, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    3. Leon Bettendorf & Hans Dewachter, 2007. "Ageing and the Relative Price of Nontradeables," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 07-064/2, Tinbergen Institute.
    4. Christian Keuschnigg & Mirela Keuschnigg & Christian Jaag, 2011. "Aging and the Financing of Social Security in Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 147(II), pages 181-231, June.
    5. Kinnunen, Helvi, 2008. "Government funds and demographic transition : alleviating ageing costs in a small open economy," Research Discussion Papers 21/2008, Bank of Finland.
    6. repec:eee:hapoch:v1_713 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Sebastiano Vitali & Vittorio Moriggia & Miloš Kopa, 2017. "Optimal pension fund composition for an Italian private pension plan sponsor," Computational Management Science, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 135-160, January.
    8. Nick Draper & Alex Armstrong, 2007. "GAMMA; a simulation model for ageing, pensions and public finances," CPB Document 147, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    9. Erling Holmøy & Kyrre Stensnes, 2008. "Will the Norwegian pension reform reach its goals? An integrated micro-macro assessment," Discussion Papers 557, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    10. Heijdra, Ben J. & Romp, Ward E., 2009. "Retirement, pensions, and ageing," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(3-4), pages 586-604, April.
    11. Frank van Erp & Paul de Hek, 2009. "Analyzing labour supply of elderly people: a life-cycle approach," CPB Document 179, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    12. Holmøy, Erling & Strøm, Birger, 2013. "Computable General Equilibrium Assessments of Fiscal Sustainability in Norway," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier.
    13. Dennis Fredriksen & Erling Holmøy & Birger Strøm & Nils Martin Stølen, 2015. "Fiscal effects of the Norwegian pension reform. A micro-macro assessment," Discussion Papers 821, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    14. Willem Klein Haneveld & Matthijs Streutker & Maarten Vlerk, 2011. "Collective adjustment of pension rights in ALM models," Computational Management Science, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 137-156, April.

    More about this item


    ageing; funded pensions; applied general equilibrium models; the Netherlands;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_1403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Klaus Wohlrabe). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.