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The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls’ Educational Outcomes in Bangladesh


  • Pataporn Sukontamarn


This paper uses household, school, and test score data from Bangladeshto compare and contrast the effectiveness of NGO-run and state-run schoolsin the provision of primary education. I study how the entry of NGOs inprimary education has affected educational outcomes of girls and examine themechanisms which account for the relative performance of NGO versus stateschools in improving female educational outcomes. The results show that theentry of NGO schools has significantly increased girls' enrollment as comparedto boys. Constructing cohorts from cross-sectional data using year of birth andyear of NGO school establishment, I show that cohorts which were exposed toNGO schools have higher probability of enrollment and the effect operatesmainly through girls. The two most prominent characteristics of NGO schoolsthat encourage girls' enrollment are the high percentage of female teachers andhaving Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs). NGO schools show strong effectsin improving children's test scores.

Suggested Citation

  • Pataporn Sukontamarn, 2005. "The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls’ Educational Outcomes in Bangladesh," STICERD - Political Economy and Public Policy Paper Series 10, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:stipep:10

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Abhijit Banerjee & Shawn Cole & Esther Duflo & Leigh Linden, 2005. "Remedying education: Evidence from two randomized experiments in india," Framed Field Experiments 00122, The Field Experiments Website.
    2. Esther Duflo, 2001. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 795-813, September.
    3. Timothy Besley & Maitreesh Ghatak, 2001. "Government Versus Private Ownership of Public Goods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1343-1372.
    4. Ashish Garg & Jonathan Morduch, 1998. "Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: Evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 11(4), pages 471-493.
    5. Abhijit V. Banerjee & Shawn Cole & Esther Duflo & Leigh Linden, 2007. "Remedying Education: Evidence from Two Randomized Experiments in India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1235-1264.
    6. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
    7. Edward Miguel & Michael Kremer, 2004. "Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(1), pages 159-217, January.
    8. Alderman, Harold & King, Elizabeth M., 1998. "Gender differences in parental investment in education," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 453-468, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mohammad Niaz Asadullah & Nazmul Chaudhury, 2013. "Peaceful Coexistence? The Role of Religious Schools and NGOs in the Growth of Female Secondary Schooling in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(2), pages 223-237, February.

    More about this item


    NGOs; non-formal schools; girls’ education; Bangladesh.;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration


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