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Peaceful Coexistence? The Role of Religious Schools and NGOs in the Growth of Female Secondary Schooling in Bangladesh

Author

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  • Asadullah, Niaz

    () (University of Malaya)

  • Chaudhury, Nazmul

    () (World Bank)

Abstract

BRAC, a non-governmental organization (NGO), runs a large number of non-formal primary schools in Bangladesh which target out-of-school children from poor families. These schools are well-known for their effectiveness in closing gender gap in primary school enrolment. On the other hand, registered non-government secondary madrasas (or Islamic schools) today enrol one girl against every boy student. In this paper, we document a positive spillover effect of BRAC schools on female secondary enrolment in registered madrasas. Drawing upon school enrolment data aggregated at the region level, we first show that regions that had more registered madrasas experienced greater secondary female enrolment growth during 1999-2003, holding the number of secular secondary schools constant. In this context we test the impact of BRAC-run primary schools on female enrolment in registered madrasas. We deal with the potential endogeneity of placement of BRAC schools using instrumental variable approach. Controlling for factors such as local-level poverty, road access and distance from major cities, we show that regions with a greater presence of BRAC schools have higher female enrolment growth in secondary madrasas. The effect is much bigger when compared to that on secondary schools.

Suggested Citation

  • Asadullah, Niaz & Chaudhury, Nazmul, 2012. "Peaceful Coexistence? The Role of Religious Schools and NGOs in the Growth of Female Secondary Schooling in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 7115, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7115
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey Hammer & Michael Kremer & Karthik Muralidharan & F. Halsey Rogers, 2006. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 91-116, Winter.
    2. Shahrukh Rafi Khan & David Kiefer, 2007. "Educational Production Functions for Rural Pakistan: A Comparative Institutional Analysis," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 327-342.
    3. G. M. Arif & Najam Us Saqib, 2003. "Production of Cognitive and Life Skills in Public, Private, and NGO Schools in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(1), pages 1-28.
    4. Niaz Asadullah, Mohammad & Chaudhury, Nazmul & Dar, Amit, 2007. "Student achievement conditioned upon school selection: Religious and secular secondary school quality in Bangladesh," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 648-659, December.
    5. Pataporn Sukontamarn, 2005. "The Entry of NGO Schools and Girls’ Educational Outcomes in Bangladesh," STICERD - Political Economy and Public Policy Paper Series 10, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    6. Nazmul Chaudhury & Shantayanan Devarajan, 2006. "Human Development and Service Delivery in Asia," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 24(s1), pages 81-97, August.
    7. Anna Fruttero & Varun Gauri, 2005. "The Strategic Choices of NGOs: Location Decisions in Rural Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 759-787.
    8. Sukontamarn, Pataporn, 2005. "The entry of NGO schools and girls’ educational outcomes in Bangladesh," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19297, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Abigail Barr & Marcel Fafchamps, 2006. "A client-community assessment of the NGO sector in Uganda," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(4), pages 611-639.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pierre André & Jean-Luc Demonsant, 2012. "Koranic Schools in Senegal : A real barrier to formal education?," THEMA Working Papers 2012-46, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    female schooling; externalities; NGO schools; madrasas;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • Z12 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Religion
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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