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Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting 2: A Case of the Preferred Impossible Alternative

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  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L.
  • Salomon, Ilan

Abstract

A conceptual model of the choice to telecommute was advanced in an earlier paper. In this paper we present empirical data from a nonrepresentative sample of 628 City of San Diego employees on key variables and relationships in that model. The relationships among possibility, preference, and choice are examined. A key finding is the existence of a large group of people (57% of the sample) for whom telecommuting is a preferred impossible alternative. Dichotomous and continuous constraints are distinguished, and three dichotomous constraints are defined. ’Lack of awareness’ is active for 4%, ’job unsuitability’ for 44%, and ’manager disapproval’ for 51% of the sample. For 68% of the sample, at least one of these constraints is active. Even among those for whom none of the dichotomous constraints is in force, most people do not choose telecommuting because of the presence of active continuous constraints. For only 11% of the entire sample, telecommuting is possible, preferred, and chosen. The potential impacts of self-selection bias are estimated, and sampling bias is qualitatively assessed. This analysis provides a crude but useful estimate of the potential of telecommuting in the population, and more specifically, the relative share of potential telecommuters who are prevented by key dichotomous constraints from choosing that option.

Suggested Citation

  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1996. "Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting 2: A Case of the Preferred Impossible Alternative," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7br7039r, University of California Transportation Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt7br7039r
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    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 1991. "Telecommuting and Travel: State of the Practice, State of the Art," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4zc486ph, University of California Transportation Center.
    2. Bagley, Michael N & Mannering, Jill S & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 1994. "Telecommuting Centers and Related Concepts: A Review of Practice," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt0pr1d308, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    3. P L Mokhtarian & I Salomon, 1994. "Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting: Setting the Context," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 26(5), pages 749-766, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Thomas de Graaff & Piet Rietveld, 2004. "ICT and Substitution Between Out-of-Home and at-Home Work: The Importance of Timing," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 36(5), pages 879-896, May.
    2. Lee-Gosselin, Martin & Miranda-Moreno, Luis F., 2009. "What is different about urban activities of those with access to ICTs? Some early evidence from Québec, Canada," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 104-114.
    3. Walls, Margaret & Safirova, Elena, 2004. "A Review of the Literature on Telecommuting and Its Implications for Vehicle Travel and Emissions," Discussion Papers 10492, Resources for the Future.
    4. Rognes, Jon, 2002. "Telecommuting resistance, soft but strong: Development of telecommuting over time, and related rhetoric, in three organisations," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Business Administration 2002:1, Stockholm School of Economics.
    5. Salomon, Ilan & Mokhtarian, Patricia, 1998. "What Happens When Mobility-Inclined Market Segments Face Accessibility-Enhancing Policies?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt2x75525j, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    6. Hynes, Mike, 2016. "Developing (tele)work? A multi-level sociotechnical perspective of telework in Ireland," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 21-31.
    7. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Raney, Elizabeth A. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Behavioral response to congestion: identifying patterns and socio-economic differences in adoption," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 147-160, July.
    8. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Bagley, Michael N., 2000. "Modeling employees' perceptions and proportional preferences of work locations: the regular workplace and telecommuting alternatives," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 223-242, May.
    9. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Modeling the desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-50, January.
    10. Choo, Sangho & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 2002. "Impacts of Home-Based Telecommuting on Vehicle-Miles Traveled: A Nationwide Time Series Analysis," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt2gj976x6, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    11. P L Mokhtarian & I Salomon, 1996. "Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting: 3. Identifying the Choice Set and Estimating Binary Choice Models for Technology-Based Alternatives," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 28(10), pages 1877-1894, October.
    12. Varma, Krishna & Ho, Chaang-Iuan & Stanek, David & Mokhtarian, Patricia, 1998. "Duration and Frequency of Telecenter Use: Once a Telecommuter, Always a Telecommuter?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt61t9j2vb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    13. Tang, Wei & Mokhtarian, Patricia L & Handy, Susan L, 2008. "The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics in the Adoption and Frequency of Working at Home: Empirical Evidence from Northern California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt13x2q3rb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    14. Shafizadeh, K. & Niemeier, D. & Mokhtarian, P. & Salomon, I., 1998. "The Costs And Benefits Of Telecommuting: An Evaluation Of Macro-scale Literature," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt1f01c191, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    15. Sumita Raghuram & Dong Fang, 2014. "Telecommuting and the role of supervisory power in China," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 523-547, June.
    16. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan & Saxena, Somitra & Sampath, Srikanth & Cheung, Peter & Le, Kate & Bagley, Michael, 1996. "Adoption of Telecommuting in Two California State Agencies," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2v63b7b8, University of California Transportation Center.
    17. Haddad, Hebba & Lyons, Glenn & Chatterjee, Kiron, 2009. "An examination of determinants influencing the desire for and frequency of part-day and whole-day homeworking," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 124-133.

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