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Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting: Setting the Context

Author

Listed:
  • P L Mokhtarian

    (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis 95616, USA)

  • I Salomon

    (Department of Geography, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91905, Israel)

Abstract

In this paper a conceptual model of the individual decision to telecommute is presented. Key elements of that decision, including constraints, facilitators, and drives, are defined and the relationships among them described. The major types of constraints (if negative) or facilitators (if positive) include external factors related to awareness, the organization, and the job, and internal psychosocial factors. The major types of drives are work, family, leisure, ideology, and travel. It is argued that the absence of constraints is a necessary but not sufficient condition for telecommuting to be adopted by an individual. The presence of one or more drives, assumed to be associated with some dissatisfaction, is necessary to activate the search for a solution to that dissatisfaction. The choice set contains those alternative solutions perceived to be feasible by the individual. It may or may not contain telecommuting (depending on whether all constraints are nonbinding or not), and probably contains other alternatives having nothing to do with telecommuting. Each alternative is evaluated in terms of how effectively it satisfies the drive, and the individual's attitudes toward it. The alternative (or bundle of alternatives) which maximizes individual utility becomes the preferred behavioral pattern. However, short-term constraints may prevent the preferred behavior from being chosen. The process is a dynamic one, in which previous choices affect attitudes and constraints and alter drives. Work directed by the authors is under way to operationalize the conceptual model.

Suggested Citation

  • P L Mokhtarian & I Salomon, 1994. "Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting: Setting the Context," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 26(5), pages 749-766, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:envira:v:26:y:1994:i:5:p:749-766
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    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Modeling the desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-50, January.
    2. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1995. "Modeling the Preference for Telecommuting: Measuring Attitudes and Other Variables," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2kn111m8, University of California Transportation Center.
    3. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Handy, Susan L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1995. "Methodological issues in the estimation of the travel, energy, and air quality impacts of telecommuting," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 283-302, July.
    4. Becky P. Y. Loo & Bo Wang, 2018. "Factors associated with home-based e-working and e-shopping in Nanjing, China," Transportation, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 365-384, March.
    5. Sumita Raghuram & Philipp Tuertscher & Raghu Garud, 2010. "Research Note ---Mapping the Field of Virtual Work: A Cocitation Analysis," Information Systems Research, INFORMS, vol. 21(4), pages 983-999, December.
    6. de Graaff, Thomas & Rietveld, Piet, 2007. "Substitution between working at home and out-of-home: The role of ICT and commuting costs," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 142-160, February.
    7. Shafizadeh, Kevan R. & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Niemeier, Debbie A. & Salomon, Ilan, 2000. "The Costs and Benefits of Home-Based Telecommuting," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt49c1n7hg, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    8. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Raney, Elizabeth A. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Behavioral response to congestion: identifying patterns and socio-economic differences in adoption," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 147-160, July.
    9. P L Mokhtarian & I Salomon, 1996. "Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting: 2. A Case of the Preferred Impossible Alternative," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 28(10), pages 1859-1876, October.
    10. Tang, Wei & Mokhtarian, Patricia L & Handy, Susan L, 2008. "The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics in the Adoption and Frequency of Working at Home: Empirical Evidence from Northern California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt13x2q3rb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    11. Haddad, Hebba & Lyons, Glenn & Chatterjee, Kiron, 2009. "An examination of determinants influencing the desire for and frequency of part-day and whole-day homeworking," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 124-133.
    12. P L Mokhtarian & I Salomon, 1996. "Modeling the Choice of Telecommuting: 3. Identifying the Choice Set and Estimating Binary Choice Models for Technology-Based Alternatives," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 28(10), pages 1877-1894, October.
    13. Golob, Thomas F., 2002. "travelbehavior.com - Activity Approaches to Modeling the Effects of Information Technology on Personal Travel Behavior," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9t40s1mc, University of California Transportation Center.
    14. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Bagley, Michael N., 2000. "Modeling employees' perceptions and proportional preferences of work locations: the regular workplace and telecommuting alternatives," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 223-242, May.
    15. Choo, Sangho & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 2002. "Impacts of Home-Based Telecommuting on Vehicle-Miles Traveled: A Nationwide Time Series Analysis," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt2gj976x6, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    16. Handy, Susan L, 2002. "Accessibility- vs. Mobility-Enhancing Strategies for Addressing Automobile Dependence in the U.S," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt5kn4s4pb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    17. Wilton, Robert D. & Páez, Antonio & Scott, Darren M., 2011. "Why do you care what other people think? A qualitative investigation of social influence and telecommuting," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 269-282, May.
    18. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan & Saxena, Somitra & Sampath, Srikanth & Cheung, Peter & Le, Kate & Bagley, Michael, 1996. "Adoption of Telecommuting in Two California State Agencies," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2v63b7b8, University of California Transportation Center.
    19. Eran Ben-Elia & Feng Zhen, 2018. "ICT, activity space–time and mobility: new insights, new models, new methodologies," Transportation, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 267-272, March.

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