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Geopolítica de la ayuda ¿Cómo optimizar el impacto de la ayuda sobre el crecimiento?

  • Sergio Tezanos Vázquez

    ()

    (Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA), Universidad de Cantabria)

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    El debate sobre cómo asignar geográficamente la ayuda ha estado vigente desde los albores del sistema de cooperación internacional. Si bien se acepta comúnmente que la ayuda debe ser una respuesta solidaria a las necesidades socio-económicas del mundo en desarrollo, las prácticas distributivas de los donantes cuestionan a menudo este principio inspirador. La “geopolítica de la ayuda” ha sido objeto de intenso análisis, habiéndose concedido mayor atención a los estudios de carácter “positivo”, que a sus contrapartes “normativos”. Este artículo revisa esta segunda categoría de estudios, distinguiendo tres enfoques distributivos distintos: i) el enfoque marginalista, que propone esquemas de asignación que maximizan la reducción de la pobreza en el mundo; ii) el enfoque de igualdad de oportunidades, que propone criterios distributivos basados en principios post-utilitaristas; y, iii) el enfoque pragmático de asignación, basado en “rendimientos”, que han aplicado unos pocos donantes. Finalmente se resumen las principales potencialidades y limitaciones de esta literatura, y se exponen sus principales contribuciones para la conformación de un sistema de ayuda “eficiente”, que promueva la coordinación geográfica entre donantes.

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    Paper provided by Cátedra de Cooperación Internacional y con Iberoamérica (COIBA), Universidad de Cantabria in its series Documentos de trabajo sobre cooperación y desarrollo with number 200903.

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    Date of creation: Mar 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:cci:wpaper:200903
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