Building performance evaluation and certification in the UK: a critical review of SAP?
Improving the efficiency and performance of the UK residential sector is now necessary for meeting future energy and climate change targets. Building Performance Evaluation and Certification (BPEC) tools are vital for estimating and recommending cost effective improvements to building energy efficiency and lowering overall emissions. In the UK, building performance is estimated using the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for new dwellings and Reduced SAP (RdSAP) for existing dwellings. Using a systems based approach we show there are many opportunities for improving the effectiveness of BPEC tools. In particular, if the building stock is going to meet future energy and climate change targets the system driving building energy efficiency will need to become more efficient. In order to achieve this goal, building performance standards across Europe are compared highlighting the most effective strategies where they are found. It is shown that the large variance between estimated and actual energy performance from dwellings in the UK may be preventing the adoption of bottom-up energy efficiency measures. We show that despite popular belief, SAP and RdSAP do not estimate building energy efficiency but instead attempt to estimate the cost-effective performance of a building and thus create perverse incentives that may lead to additional CO2 emissions. In this regard, the SAP standard confounds cost-effectiveness, energy efficiency and environmental performance giving an inadequate estimate of all three policy objectives. Important contributions for improving measurement, analysis, synthesis and certification of building performance characteristics are offered.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kelly, Scott & Pollitt, Michael, 2010. "An assessment of the present and future opportunities for combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) in the United Kingdom," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6936-6945, November.
- Scarpa, Riccardo & Willis, Ken, 2010. "Willingness-to-pay for renewable energy: Primary and discretionary choice of British households' for micro-generation technologies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 129-136, January.
- Kelly, Scott, 2011. "Do homes that are more energy efficient consume less energy?: A structural equation model of the English residential sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 5610-5620.
- Druckman, Angela & Jackson, Tim, 2009. "The carbon footprint of UK households 1990-2004: A socio-economically disaggregated, quasi-multi-regional input-output model," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(7), pages 2066-2077, May.
- Kennedy, Scott & Sgouridis, Sgouris, 2011. "Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5259-5268, September.
- Clarke, Joseph A. & Johnstone, Cameron M. & Kelly, Nicolas J. & Strachan, Paul A. & Tuohy, Paul, 2008. "The role of built environment energy efficiency in a sustainable UK energy economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 4605-4609, December.
- Xing, Yangang & Hewitt, Neil & Griffiths, Philip, 2011. "Zero carbon buildings refurbishment--A Hierarchical pathway," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 3229-3236, August.
- Agnar Sandmo, 1999. "Asymmetric Information and Public Economics: The Mirrlees-Vickrey Nobel Prize," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 165-180, Winter.
- Natarajan, Sukumar & Levermore, Geoffrey J., 2007. "Predicting future UK housing stock and carbon emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5719-5727, November.
- Wright, Andrew, 2008. "What is the relationship between built form and energy use in dwellings?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 4544-4547, December.
- Yun, Geun Young & Steemers, Koen, 2011. "Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(6), pages 2191-2200, June.
- Amecke, Hermann, 2011. "The Effectiveness of Energy Performance Certificates - Evidence from Germany," EconStor Research Reports 65874, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
- Kannan, Ramachandran & Strachan, Neil, 2009. "Modelling the UK residential energy sector under long-term decarbonisation scenarios: Comparison between energy systems and sectoral modelling approaches," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(4), pages 416-428, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cam:camdae:1238. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jake Dyer)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.