IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Rigorous classification and carbon accounting principles for low and Zero Carbon Cities

  • Kennedy, Scott
  • Sgouridis, Sgouris
Registered author(s):

    A large number of communities, new developments, and regions aim to lower their carbon footprint and aspire to become "zero carbon" or "Carbon Neutral." Yet there are neither clear definitions for the scope of emissions that such a label would address on an urban scale, nor is there a process for qualifying the carbon reduction claims. This paper addresses the question of how to define a zero carbon, Low Carbon, or Carbon Neutral urban development by proposing hierarchical emissions categories with three levels: Internal Emissions based on the geographical boundary, external emissions directly caused by core municipal activities, and internal or external emissions due to non-core activities. Each level implies a different carbon management strategy (eliminating, balancing, and minimizing, respectively) needed to meet a Net Zero Carbon designation. The trade-offs, implications, and difficulties of implementing carbon debt accounting based upon these definitions are further analyzed.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511004241
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 39 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 5259-5268

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:9:p:5259-5268
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Richard S.J. Tol, 2011. "The Social Cost of Carbon," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 419-443, October.
    2. Roger A. Sedjo & Gregg Marland, 2003. "Inter-trading permanent emissions credits and rented temporary carbon emissions offsets: some issues and alternatives," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 435-444, December.
    3. Bouman, Mathijs & Heijungs, Reinout & van der Voet, Ester & van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M. & Huppes, Gjalt, 2000. "Material flows and economic models: an analytical comparison of SFA, LCA and partial equilibrium models," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 195-216, February.
    4. Philip Fearnside & Daniel Lashof & Pedro Moura-Costa, 2000. "Accounting for time in Mitigating Global Warming through land-use change and forestry," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 239-270, September.
    5. Reiche, Danyel, 2010. "Renewable Energy Policies in the Gulf countries: A case study of the carbon-neutral "Masdar City" in Abu Dhabi," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 378-382, January.
    6. Sgouridis, Sgouris & Kennedy, Scott, 2010. "Tangible and fungible energy: Hybrid energy market and currency system for total energy management. A Masdar City case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1749-1758, April.
    7. Kennedy, Christopher & Steinberger, Julia & Gasson, Barrie & Hansen, Yvonne & Hillman, Timothy & Havránek, Miroslav & Pataki, Diane & Phdungsilp, Aumnad & Ramaswami, Anu & Mendez, Gara Villalba, 2010. "Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 4828-4837, September.
    8. Heather Lovell & Harriet Bulkeley & Diana Liverman, 2009. "Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 41(10), pages 2357-2379, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:9:p:5259-5268. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.