How Friedman and Schwartz became monetarists
During the late-1940s and the early-1950s Milton Friedman favored a rule under which fiscal policy would be used to generate changes in the money supply with the aim of stabilizing output at full employment. He believed that the economy is inherently unstable because of endogenous movements in money supply under a fractional-reserve banking system. In her work, Anna Schwartz downplayed the role of monetary factors in business cycles and the role of monetary policy as a stabilization tool. We show how the joint work of Friedman and Schwartz from 1948 to 1958 led Friedman to view money as the “primary mover” of the business cycle and underpinned his shift to a rule based on money growth so that discretionary monetary policy would not act as a source of destabilizing shocks. The decisive factor in the evolution of Friedman’s thinking was the empirical confirmation that the Great Depression had been both initiated and deepened by the Fed. The largely neglected influence of Clark Warburton on the evolution of Friedman’s thinking provides a missing -- but crucial -- link in explaining Friedman’s recognition of the role of monetary factors in the Great Depression and of the Fed’s ability to offset the destabilizing effects produced by shifts from deposits into currency under a fractional-reserve banking system.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael D. Bordo & Anna J. Schwartz, 1987.
"Clark Warburton: Pioneer Monetarist,"
NBER Chapters,in: Money in Historical Perspective, pages 234-254
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bordo, Michael D. & Schwartz, Anna J., 1979. "Clark Warburton: Pioneer monetarist," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 43-65, January.
- Clark Warburton, 1949. "The Secular Trend in Monetary Velocity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 68-91.
- David Mitch, 2016. "A Year of Transition: Faculty Recruiting at Chicago in 1946," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 124(6), pages 1714-1734.
- repec:ucp:bkecon:9780226264141 is not listed on IDEAS
- Michael D. Bordo & Hugh Rockoff, 2013. "Not Just the Great Contraction: Friedman and Schwartz's A Monetary History of the United States 1867 to 1960," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 61-65, May.
- Michael D. Bordo & Hugh Rockoff, 2013. "Not Just the Great Contraction: Friedman and Schwartz's A Monetary History of the United States 1867 to 1960," NBER Working Papers 18828, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Nelson, Edward, 2004. "An Interview With Anna J. Schwartz," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(03), pages 395-417, June.
- Lothian, James R., 2009. "Milton Friedman's monetary economics and the quantity-theory tradition," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1086-1096, November.
- Hugh Rockoff, 2006. "On the Origins of "A Monetary History"," NBER Working Papers 12666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pelloni, Gianluigi, 1987. "A Note on Friedman and the Neo-Bayesian Approach," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 55(4), pages 407-418, December.
- Pelloni, Gianluigi, 1996. "De Finetti, Friedman, and the methodology of positive economics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 33-50, November.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1994. "Review of Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz's 'a monetary history of the United States, 1867-1960'," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 5-16, August. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bog:wpaper:207. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christina Tsochatzi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.