IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bdi/opques/qef_488_19.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Higher multilateral development bank lending, unchanged capital resources and triple-A rating. A possible trinity after all?

Author

Listed:
  • Riccardo Settimo

    (Bank of Italy)

Abstract

This paper contributes to the literature on Multilateral Development Banks� (MDBs) balance sheet optimization in two ways. First, it looks at solutions to alleviate the �trilemma� faced by MDBs � stemming from G20 shareholders� calls for increasing development lending while, simultaneously, keeping capital resources and triple-A credit ratings unchanged. The employment of rating methodologies that take into account MDBs� peculiarities more appropriately represents one viable solution, as it would allow them to significantly increase available lending capacity for given rating levels and equity resources. Second, the econometric evidence suggests the existence of a rather narrow difference in the cost of funding between triple-A and AA+ rated institutions. Combining the two results, the paper concludes that applying an alternative rating methodology and opting for an AA+ credit rating (instead of triple-A), the four MDBs considered (IBRD, ADB, IADB and AfDB) could more than triple their spare lending capacity, from USD 415 bn to 1.370 bn, with a relatively limited impact on funding costs, estimated at between 40 and 50 bps.

Suggested Citation

  • Riccardo Settimo, 2019. "Higher multilateral development bank lending, unchanged capital resources and triple-A rating. A possible trinity after all?," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 488, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_488_19
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/qef/2019-0488/QEF_488_19.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sironi, Andrea, 2003. "Testing for Market Discipline in the European Banking Industry: Evidence from Subordinated Debt Issues," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(3), pages 443-472, June.
    2. Donald Morgan & Kevin Stiroh, 2001. "Market Discipline of Banks: The Asset Test," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 20(2), pages 195-208, October.
    3. Javed I. Ahmed & Christopher Anderson & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2015. "Are the Borrowing Costs of Large Financial Firms Unusual?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Zaghini, Andrea, 2017. "A tale of fragmentation: Corporate funding in the euro-area bond market," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 59-68.
    5. Edwin J. Elton & Martin J. Gruber & Deepak Agrawal & Christopher Mann, 2001. "Explaining the Rate Spread on Corporate Bonds," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 247-277, February.
    6. John Y. Campbell & Glen B. Taksler, 2003. "Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2321-2350, December.
    7. Zaghini, Andrea, 2019. "The CSPP at work: Yield heterogeneity and the portfolio rebalancing channel," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 282-297.
    8. Andrea Cardillo & Andrea Zaghini, 2012. "The recent trends in long-term bank funding," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 137, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    9. Richard Cantor & Frank Packer, 1996. "Determinants and impact of sovereign credit ratings," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 2(Oct), pages 37-53.
    10. Anginer, Deniz & Warburton, A. Joseph, 2014. "The Chrysler effect: The impact of government intervention on borrowing costs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 62-79.
    11. Pierre Collin-Dufresn & Robert S. Goldstein & J. Spencer Martin, 2001. "The Determinants of Credit Spread Changes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2177-2207, December.
    12. David Xiao Chen & Philippe Muller & Hawa Wagué, 2017. "Multilateral Development Bank Credit Rating Methodology: Overcoming the Challenges in Assessing Relative Credit Risk in Highly Rated Institutions Based on Public Data," Discussion Papers 17-6, Bank of Canada.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Fleiss, Pablo, 2021. "Multilateral development banks in Latin America: Recent trends, the response to the pandemic, and the forthcoming role," Studies and Perspectives – ECLAC Office in Washington 21, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    2. Riccardo Settimo & Raffaele De Marchi, 2021. "Will multilateral development banks weather the Covid-19 crisis?," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 598, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zaghini, Andrea, 2019. "The CSPP at work: Yield heterogeneity and the portfolio rebalancing channel," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 282-297.
    2. Zaghini, Andrea, 2017. "A tale of fragmentation: Corporate funding in the euro-area bond market," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 59-68.
    3. Andrea Zaghini, 2014. "Bank Bonds: Size, Systemic Relevance and the Sovereign," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 161-184, June.
    4. Pianeselli, Daniele & Zaghini, Andrea, 2014. "The cost of firms’ debt financing and the global financial crisis," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 74-83.
    5. Diaz Weigel, Diana & Gemmill, Gordon, 2006. "What drives credit risk in emerging markets? The roles of country fundamentals and market co-movements," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 476-502, April.
    6. Daniele Pianeselli & Andrea Zaghini, 2014. "The cost of firms� debt financing and the global financial crisis," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 950, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    7. Hett, Florian & Schmidt, Alexander, 2017. "Bank rescues and bailout expectations: The erosion of market discipline during the financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(3), pages 635-651.
    8. Krishnan, C. N. V. & Ritchken, P. H. & Thomson, J. B., 2006. "On Credit-Spread Slopes and Predicting Bank Risk," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 1545-1574, September.
    9. C. N. V. Krishnan & Peter H. Ritchken & James B. Thomson, 2003. "Monitoring and controlling bank risk: does risky debt serve any purpose?," Working Papers (Old Series) 0301, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    10. Zaghini, Andrea, 2021. "The Covid pandemic in the market: Infected, immune and cured bonds," CFS Working Paper Series 653, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    11. Zaghini, Andrea, 2016. "Fragmentation and heterogeneity in the euro-area corporate bond market: Back to normal?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 51-61.
    12. Güntay, Levent & Hackbarth, Dirk, 2010. "Corporate bond credit spreads and forecast dispersion," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2328-2345, October.
    13. Chen, Tsung-Kang & Liao, Hsien-Hsing & Tsai, Pei-Ling, 2011. "Internal liquidity risk in corporate bond yield spreads," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 978-987, April.
    14. Van Landschoot, Astrid, 2004. "Determinants of euro term structure of credit spreads," Working Paper Series 397, European Central Bank.
    15. Stellner, Christoph & Klein, Christian & Zwergel, Bernhard, 2015. "Corporate social responsibility and Eurozone corporate bonds: The moderating role of country sustainability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 538-549.
    16. Menz, Klaus-Michael, 2010. "Market discipline and the evaluation of Euro financial bonds--An empirical analysis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 315-328, September.
    17. Hilscher, Jens, 2007. "Is the corporate bond market forward looking?," Working Paper Series 800, European Central Bank.
    18. Guo, Liang, 2013. "Determinants of credit spreads: The role of ambiguity and information uncertainty," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 279-297.
    19. Benjamin Yibin Zhang & Hao Zhou & Haibin Zhu, 2009. "Explaining Credit Default Swap Spreads with the Equity Volatility and Jump Risks of Individual Firms," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(12), pages 5099-5131, December.
    20. Nanda, Vikram & Wu, Wei & Zhou, Xing (Alex), 2019. "Investment Commonality across Insurance Companies: Fire Sale Risk and Corporate Yield Spreads," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 54(6), pages 2543-2574, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    multilateral development banks; preferred creditor status; credit ratings; rating agencies; borrowing costs; risk premia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F53 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_488_19. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdigvit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bdigvit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.