Developments in retail trade regulation in Spain and their macroeconomic implications
The literature points out that retail trade regulations may have a significant impact on prices, employment and productivity. In the case of Spain, the retail trade sector is subject to a rich set of regional regulations. This paper provides a database and a set of indicators on the main restrictions to retail trade in place in Spain’s Autonomous Regions (Comunidades Autónomas) between 1997 and 2007. Those restrictions bear on the following regulatory aspects: shopping hours, blue laws, seasonal discounts, definitions of "big" stores, licensing of discount stores, moratoria in retail trade licence issuing and taxes on big stores. The paper presents then an aggregate indicator constructed on the basis of these restrictions using factor analysis. Finally, this research estimates the effect of the commercial restrictiveness (using the aggregate indicator) among the regions on the commercial density, the number of employees of the sector and the rate of inflation. For that, panel data techniques are applied to the analysis. On the one hand, the results of this research point to an increase in the level of regulation throughout the period. On the other hand the estimates show that an increase in the level of restrictiveness increases commercial density and inflation among the regions but diminishes the number of persons employed in the sector. In either case, the results of this research must be taken with care due to the limitations of the regulation indicator studied and the limited availability of data for the period under study.
|Date of creation:||May 2009|
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- Fabiano Schivardi & Eliana Viviano, 2008.
"Entry Barriers in Retail Trade,"
EIEF Working Papers Series
0814, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Jul 2008.
- Schivardi, Fabiano & Viviano, Eliana, 2008. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 6637, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- F. Schivardi & E. Viviano, 2009. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," Working Paper CRENoS 200908, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
- Fabiano Schivardi & Eliana Viviano, 2010. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," Working Papers CELEG 1003, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
- Paul Conway & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2006. "Product Market Regulation in the Non-Manufacturing Sectors of OECD Countries: Measurement and Highlights," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 530, OECD Publishing.
- Willy W. Hoffmaister, 2006.
"Barriers to Retail Competition and Prices; Evidence From Spain,"
IMF Working Papers
06/231, International Monetary Fund.
- Alexander W. Hoffmaister, 2010. "Barriers to retail competition and prices: evidence from Spain," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(2), pages 395-416, April.
- Viviano, Eliana, 2008.
"Entry regulations and labour market outcomes: Evidence from the Italian retail trade sector,"
Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1200-1222, December.
- Eliana Viviano, 2006. "Entry regulations and labor market outcomes: evidence from the Italian retail trade sector," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 594, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
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