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Hard or Soft? Institutional Reforms and Infrastructure Spending as Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in China

Author

Listed:
  • K. C. Fung

    () (University of California at Santa Cruz)

  • Alicia García-Herrero

    () (Banco de España)

  • Hitomi Iizaka

    () (University of California at Santa Cruz)

  • Alan Siu

    () (University of Hong Kong - School of Economics and Finance)

Abstract

In this paper, we examine empirically whether hard infrastructure, in the form of more highways and railroads, or soft infrastructure, in the form of more market oriented institutions through deeper reform, lead to more foreign direct investment (FDI) in China. We use data of outward FDI from the United States, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Korea to various regions of China from 1990 to 2002. We control for the standard determinants of FDI, namely regional market size, wage rates, human capital and tax policies. We add indices of hard and soft infrastructure and find that soft infrastructure, in the form of more market oriented institutions through deeper structural reform, consistently outperforms hard infrastructure as a determinant of FDI.

Suggested Citation

  • K. C. Fung & Alicia García-Herrero & Hitomi Iizaka & Alan Siu, 2006. "Hard or Soft? Institutional Reforms and Infrastructure Spending as Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in China," Working Papers 0616, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:0616
    as

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Olena Havrylchyk & Sandra Poncet, 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment in China: Reward or Remedy?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(11), pages 1662-1681, November.
    2. Aitor Lacuesta, 2006. "Emigration and human capital: who leaves, who comes back and what difference does it make?," Working Papers 0620, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    3. Katiuscia Vaccarini, 2014. "Psychic distance and FDI: the case of China," Working Papers 1403, c.MET-05 - Centro Interuniversitario di Economia Applicata alle Politiche per L'industria, lo Sviluppo locale e l'Internazionalizzazione.
    4. Luis J. Álvarez & Ignacio Hernando, 2006. "Competition and price adjustment in the euro area," Working Papers 0629, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    5. K. C. Fung & Alicia Garcia-Herrero & Hitomi Iizaka & Alan Siu, 2005. "Hard Or Soft? Institutional Reforms And Infrastructure Spending As Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In China," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 56(4), pages 408-416.
    6. Nielsen, Bo Bernhard & Asmussen, Christian Geisler & Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann, 2017. "The location choice of foreign direct investments: Empirical evidence and methodological challenges," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 62-82.
    7. Blanc-Brude, Frédéric & Cookson, Graham & Piesse, Jenifer & Strange, Roger, 2014. "The FDI location decision: Distance and the effects of spatial dependence," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 797-810.
    8. Philip Vermeulen & Daniel A. Dias & Maarten Dossche & Erwan Gautier & Ignacio Hernando & Roberto Sabbatini & Harald Stahl, 2012. "Price Setting in the Euro Area: Some Stylized Facts from Individual Producer Price Data," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44(8), pages 1631-1650, December.
    9. Chen, George Shih-Ku, 2009. "Determinants of Taiwanese investment in China: An agglomeration economies-based perspective," MPRA Paper 13894, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Aarón Garavito A. & Ana María Iregui B. & María Teresa Ramírez G., 2012. "Determinantes de la inversión extranjera directa en Colombia: Un estudio a nivel de firma," Borradores de Economia 714, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    11. Sergio Puente, 2006. "Dynamic stability in repeated games," Working Papers 0618, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    12. Marouane ALAYA (GREThA) & Dalila NICET-CHENAF (GREThA) & Eric ROUGIER (GREThA), 2007. "FDI Promotion policies and dynamic of growth in the South East Mediterranean countries (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2007-06, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    13. Zhang, Yijing & Toppinen, Anne & Uusivuori, Jussi, 2014. "Internationalization of the forest products industry: A synthesis of literature and implications for future research," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 8-16.
    14. Kujal Praveen & Ruiz Juan M., 2007. "Cost Effectiveness of R&D and Strategic Trade Policy," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-35, April.
    15. Kwok-Chiu Fung & Alicia Garcia-Herrero & Francis Ng, 2012. "Foreign direct investment in financing regional infrastructure," Chapters,in: Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity, chapter 11, pages 402-431 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    16. George Shih-Ku Chen, 2009. "Determinants Of Taiwanese Investment In China: An Agglomeration Economies-Based Perspective," Monash Economics Working Papers 01-09, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    17. Li Shu & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2010. "The level of human capital in innovative firms located in China. Is foreign capital relevant?," FEP Working Papers 391, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    18. Okafor, Godwin & Piesse, Jenifer & Webster, Allan, 2015. "The motives for inward FDI into Sub-Saharan African countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 875-890.
    19. Aarón Garavito & Ana María Iregui & María Teresa Ramírez, 2014. "An Empirical Examination of the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: A Firm-Level Analysis for the Colombian Economy," REVISTA DE ECONOMÍA DEL ROSARIO, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO, June.
    20. Ricardo Gimeno & Juan M. Nave, 2006. "Genetic algorithm estimation of interest rate term structure," Working Papers 0634, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    21. repec:eee:iburev:v:27:y:2018:i:1:p:139-148 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    china; fdi determinants;

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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