IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iie/wpaper/wp01-3.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Foreign Direct Investment in China: Effects on Growth and Economic Performance

Author

Listed:
  • Edward M. Graham

    () (Peterson Institute for International Economics)

  • Erika Wada

    () (Peterson Institute for International Economics)

Abstract

By almost all accounts, foreign direct investment (FDI) in China has been one of the major success stories of the past 10 years. Starting from a base of less than $19 billion in 1990, the stock of FDI in China rose to over $300 billion at the end of 1999. Ranked by the stock of inward FDI, China thus has become the leader among all developing nations and second among the APEC nations (only the United States holds a larger stock of inward FDI). China's FDI consists largely of greenfield investment, while inward FDI in the United States by contrast has been generated more by takeover of existing enterprises than by new establishment, a point developed later in this paper. The majority of FDI in China has originated from elsewhere in developing Asia (i.e., not including Japan). Hong Kong, now a largely self-governing "special autonomous region" of China itself, has been the largest source of record. The dominance of Hong Kong, however, is somewhat illusory in that much FDI nominally from Hong Kong in reality is from elsewhere. Some of what is listed as Hong Kong-source FDI in China is, in fact, investment by domestic Chinese that is "round-tripped" through Hong Kong (see footnote 2). Other FDI in China listed as Hong Kong in origin is in reality from various western nations and Taiwan that is placed into China via Hong Kong intermediaries. Alas, no published records exist to indicate exactly how much FDI in China that is nominally from Hong Kong is in fact attributable to other nations. According to official sources, in the period 1992-96, FDI from developing Asian nations dominated total FDI flows into China, but since 1996 a growing portion of these flows has come from other sources (i.e., Europe, North America, and Japan). This latter FDI generally has been of a different character than FDI from developing Asian nations. While the latter has been concentrated in export-processing activities in sectors in which China has revealed comparative advantage, much of the former has been directed more toward the domestic market in sectors in which China has no revealed comparative advantage. Thus one consequence of a rising percentage of FDI from Japan, Europe, and North America has been that overall the activities of foreign-invested enterprises in China have become somewhat more focused on the domestic market, and less on export markets, in the late 1990s relative to the mid-1990s. The consequences are discussed in more detail later in this paper. This includes an econometric test of whether FDI in China has contributed to increased total factor productivity growth in those provinces that have received large amounts of FDI. The tests suggest that the result is positive, and hence that FDI has contributed significantly to economic growth in China beyond that which results from faster capital accumulation.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward M. Graham & Erika Wada, 2001. "Foreign Direct Investment in China: Effects on Growth and Economic Performance," Working Paper Series WP01-3, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:iie:wpaper:wp01-3
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://piie.com/publications/working-papers/foreign-direct-investment-china-effects-growth-and-economic-performance
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Theodore H. Moran, 1998. "Foreign Direct Investment and Development: The New Policy Agenda for Developing Countries and Economies in Transition," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 53.
    2. Daniel H. Rosen, 1999. "Behind the Open Door: Foreign Enterprises in the Chinese Marketplace," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 23.
    3. Shang-Jin Wei, 1993. "Open door policy and China's rapid growth: evidence from city-level data," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 93-09, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    4. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Jeffrey J. Schott, 1992. "North American Free Trade: Issues and Recommendations," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 71, January.
    5. Edward M. Graham & Paul Krugman, 1995. "Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, 3rd Edition," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 52.
    6. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    7. Takatoshi Ito & Anne O. Krueger, 1996. "Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_96-1.
    8. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    9. Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Foreign Direct Investment in China: Sources and Consequences," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5, pages 77-105 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Françoise Lemoine, 2000. "FDI and the Opening Up of China's Economy," Working Papers 2000-11, CEPII research center.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wooster, Rossitza B. & Paul, Donna L., 2016. "Leadership positioning among U.S. firms investing in China," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 319-332.
    2. Krister Sandberg, 2004. "Growth of GRP in Chinese Provinces. A Test for Spatial Spillovers," ERSA conference papers ersa04p596, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Tian, Xu & Yu, Xiaohua, 2012. "The Enigmas of TFP in China: A meta-analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 396-414.
    4. K. C. Fung & Alicia Garcia-Herrero & Hitomi Iizaka & Alan Siu, 2005. "Hard Or Soft? Institutional Reforms And Infrastructure Spending As Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In China," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 56(4), pages 408-416.
    5. Anwar, Sajid & Sun, Sizhong, 2012. "FDI and market entry/exit: Evidence from China," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 487-498.
    6. Flávio Vilela Vieira & Michele Polline Veríssimo, 2005. "Crescimento Econômico De Longo Prazo Na China: Uma Investigação Econométrica," Anais do XXXIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 33th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 067, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    7. Yuheng Li & Hans Westlund & Göran Cars, 2010. "Future urban-rural relationship in China: comparison in a global context," China Agricultural Economic Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(4), pages 396-411, November.
    8. Jost, Thomas & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2003. "Deutsche Direktinvestitionen in Entwicklungs- und Reformländern: haben sich die Motive gewandelt?," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 2987, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    9. Dong, Li & Glaister, Keith W., 2006. "Motives and partner selection criteria in international strategic alliances: Perspectives of Chinese firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 577-600, December.
    10. WHALLEY, John & XIN, Xian, 2010. "China's FDI and non-FDI economies and the sustainability of future high Chinese growth," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 123-135, March.
    11. John S Henley, 2006. "Chasing the dragon: Accounting for the under-performance of India by comparison with China in attracting foreign direct investment," Working Papers id:756, eSocialSciences.
    12. Lynn E. Browne, 2005. "The New England-China relationship in 2005," New England Public Policy Center Working Paper 05-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    13. Sandberg, Krister, 2004. "Hedonic Prices, Economic Growth, and Spatial Dependence," Umeå Economic Studies 631, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
    14. Qian, Meijun & Huang, Yasheng, 2016. "Political institutions, entrenchments, and the sustainability of economic development – A lesson from rural finance," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 152-178.
    15. James Laurenceson & Kam Ki Tang, "undated". "The FDI-Income Growth Nexus: a review of the Chinese experience," EAERG Discussion Paper Series 0905, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    16. Jost, Thomas & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2002. "Bestimmungsgründe deutscher Direktinvestitionen in Entwicklungs- und Reformländern: hat sich wirklich etwas verändert?," Kiel Working Papers 1124, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iie:wpaper:wp01-3. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Peterson Institute webmaster). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/iieeeus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.