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The Spanish economic crisis: key factors and growth challenges in the euro area

Author

Listed:
  • Eloísa Ortega

    () (Banco de España)

  • Juan Peñalosa

    () (Banco de España)

Abstract

The economic crisis affecting the industrialised countries in recent years has been singular given its intensity, complexity and the difficulties in overcoming it. The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants behind the crisis that have made it deeper and longer in Spain than in previous instances, and which have meant that there are significant obstacles to emerging from recession. Spanish EMU membership is a crucial aspect for consideration, as it contributes both to explaining the build-up of imbalances in the expansion and to conditioning the nature of the adjustment in the crisis, given that the range of economic policy instruments is significantly narrower in EMU. The macroeconomic and financial imbalances accumulated in the high-growth phase (the real estate boom, excess debt and the loss in competitiveness), which are all closely interlinked, were factors of vulnerability. But even apparently sounder fundamentals on other fronts, such as the budgetary and labour market situation, saw their weaknesses exposed in the crisis. The experience over the past four years allows some lessons to be drawn on the external sector, the real estate market, fiscal policy and the labour market. These lessons point in particular to the need to avoid complacency in economic policy management in boom periods and to the urgency of adapting the structure of goods and factor markets and the behaviour of economic agents in Spain to the requirements imposed by membership of a monetary union

Suggested Citation

  • Eloísa Ortega & Juan Peñalosa, 2012. "The Spanish economic crisis: key factors and growth challenges in the euro area," Occasional Papers 1201, Banco de España;Occasional Papers Homepage.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:opaper:1201
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    File URL: http://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosOcasionales/12/Fich/do1201e.pdf
    File Function: First version, March 2012
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sarai Criado & Adrian van Rixtel, 2008. "Structured finance and the financial turmoil of 2007-2008: and introductory overview," Occasional Papers 0808, Banco de España;Occasional Papers Homepage.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pilar Abad & Helena Chuliá, 2014. "“European government bond market integration in turbulent times”," IREA Working Papers 201424, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Oct 2014.
    2. Batavia, Bala & Nandakumar, Parameswar, 2016. "Did EMU membership cause the “Dutch disease” in the PIGS nations?," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 31-41.
    3. Merih Uctum & Remzi Uctum & Chu-Ping C. Vijverberg, 2017. "The Eurozone Convergence through Crises and Structural Changes," EconomiX Working Papers 2017-38, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    4. Antonio Estella, 2013. "Determinants of Spain's decision to leave the European Monetary Union," RSCAS Working Papers 2013/56, European University Institute.
    5. Dasí, Àngels & Iborra, María & Safón, Vicente, 2015. "Beyond path dependence: Explorative orientation, slack resources, and managerial intentionality to internationalize in SMEs," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 77-88.
    6. Antonio Estella, 2013. "Determinants of Spain’s decision to leave the European Monetary Union," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 56, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Spanish economy; EMU; economic crisis; competitiveness; real estate market; debt;

    JEL classification:

    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • H12 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Crisis Management

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