Below the Salt: Decentralizing Value-Added Taxes
Although VATs applied simultaneously within the same country by different levels of government were long considered to be either undesirable or infeasible, two quite different types of sub-central VATs – regional consumption taxes and local business taxes -- now exist in a number of countries. Brazil, Canada, and India have introduced regional (state and provincial) VATs which, like national VATs, are general taxes on consumption administered through a transaction-based credit-invoice approach. Although these three countries are very different, and each has established such a tax for its own reasons in different ways and with varying degrees of success, as this paper discusses, on the whole such regional VATs appear to work fairly well, especially in Canada. The issues that arise with independent regional VATs are closely related to those arising with national VATs in a common market such as the EU. A number of problems such as ‘carousel’ (or ‘missing trader’) fraud have recently received considerable attention in the EU and a variety of alternative solutions to such problems have been suggested, some involving major structural changes in the VAT. Experience with regional VATs, however, suggests that what is needed to resolve most such problems is primarily a firmer ‘EU-wide’ framework for improving VAT administration. The second type of sub-central VAT that has recently emerged in Italy, Japan, and France (as well as in several U.S. states) takes the form of a revised form of local business tax which is generally imposed on an ‘income’ (origin) basis in contrast to the destination-based consumption VATs discussed earlier. These taxes seem superior in some important respects to other forms of local business taxation and appear to be compatible with both regional and national VATs. Although important economic and administrative aspects require careful consideration in designing and implementing ‘two-level’ (dual) VATs, such dual VATs (or even triple VATs, including an ‘income-type’ VAT at the local level) are evidently both feasible technically and acceptable politically. This conclusion does not mean that regional VATs are either inherently desirable or necessarily the best alternative for any country (or set of countries). But it does suggest that such taxes may work more satisfactorily in at least some countries than other forms of regional sales taxes or local business taxes. Indeed, both varieties of ‘decentralized VATs’ discussed here may become more important over time.
|Date of creation:||09 Feb 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Phone: 404-413-0235|
Web page: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/index.html
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bird,Richard & Gendron,Pierre-Pascal, 2011.
"The VAT in Developing and Transitional Countries,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9781107401440, October.
- Bird,Richard & Gendron,Pierre-Pascal, 2007. "The VAT in Developing and Transitional Countries," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521877657, October.
- Luca Gandullia, 2012. "The role of direct taxes in fiscal decentralization," DEP - series of economic working papers 6/2012, University of Genoa, Research Doctorate in Public Economics.
- Isabelle Joumard & Tadashi Yokoyama, 2005. "Getting the Most Out of Public Sector Decentralisation in Japan," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 416, OECD Publishing.
- Daniel Artana & Sebastián Auguste & Marcela Cristini & Cynthia Moskovits & Ivana Templado, 2012. "Sub-National Revenue Mobilization in Latin American and Caribbean Countries: The Case of Argentina," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 63418, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Daniel Artana & Sebastian Auguste & Marcela Cristini & Cynthia Moskovitz & Ivana Templado, 2012. "Sub-National Revenue Mobilization in Latin American and Caribbean Countries: The Case of Argentina," Research Department Publications 4765, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Richard M. Bird, 2011. "Value-Added Tax: Onward and Upward?," Chapters, in: The Elgar Guide to Tax Systems, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Richard M. Bird, 2010. "Value Added Tax: Onward and Upward?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1026, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Benoît Bayenet & Philippe De Bruycker, 2006. "Belgium: an unique evolving federalism," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8847, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Richard M. Bird, 2011. "Subnational Taxation In Developing Countries: A Review Of The Literature," Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy (JICEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 2(01), pages 139-161.
- Bird, Richard M., 2010. "Subnational taxation in developing countries : a review of the literature," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5450, The World Bank.
- Richard M. Bird & Robert D. Ebel, 2005. "Subsidiarity, Solidarity, and Asymmetry," International Tax Program Papers 0509, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
- Ernesto Longobardi, 2011. "From transfers to tax "co-occupation": the Italian reform of intergovernmental finance," SERIES 0038, Dipartimento di Scienze economiche e metodi matematici - Università di Bari, revised Dec 2011.
- Ben Lockwood & David de Meza & Gareth Myles, 1995. "On the European Union VAT proposals: the superiority of origin over destination taxation," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 1-17, February.
- Genser, Bernd, 1996. " A Generalized Equivalence Property of Mixed International VAT Regimes," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(2), pages 253-262, June.
- Genser, Bernd, 1994. "A generalized equivalence property of mixed international VAT regimes," Discussion Papers, Series II 241, University of Konstanz, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 178 "Internationalization of the Economy".
- Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Andrey Timofeev, 2005. "Choosing between Centralized and Decentralized Models of Tax Administration," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0502, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Massimo Bordignon & Silvia Giannini & Paolo Panteghini, 2001. "Reforming Business Taxation: Lessons from Italy?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(2), pages 191-210, March.
- Wallack,Jessica & Srinivasan,T. N. (ed.), 2006. "Federalism and Economic Reform," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521855808, October.
- Breton,Albert, 1996. "Competitive Governments," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521481021, October.
- Lockwood, Ben, 1993. "Commodity tax competition under destination and origin principles," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 141-162, September.
- Lockwood, Ben, 1992. "Commodity Tax Competition Under Destination and Origin Principles," CEPR Discussion Papers 733, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Victoria J Perry & Katherine Baer & Emil M Sunley, 1996. "A Destination VAT for CIS Trade," IMF Working Papers 96/35, International Monetary Fund.
- Michael Keen, 2000. "VIVAT, CVAT and All That; New Forms of Value-Added Tax for Federal Systems," IMF Working Papers 00/83, .
- Luiz de Mello, 2008. "The Brazilian ``Tax War''," Public Finance Review, , vol. 36(2), pages 169-193, March.
- Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Mark Rider & Sally Wallace, 2008. "Tax Reform in Russia," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2368.
- Davis, Lucas W., 2011. "The Effects of Preferential Vat Rates Near International Borders: Evidence From Mexico," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 64(1), pages 85-104, March. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper1302. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Paul Benson)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.