U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in the Western Hemisphere Processed Food Industry
Foreign direct investment (FDI) has become the leading means for U.S. processed food companies to participate in international markets. Affiliates of U.S.-owned food processing companies had $30 billion in sales throughout the Western Hemisphere in 1995, nearly 4 times the level of processed food exports. This report puts U.S. foreign direct investment and trade in processed foods to the region into global perspective, and finds evidence that, in the aggregate for the 1990's, trade and FDI are complementary--not competitive--means of accessing international food markets. Incomes have grown sufficiently in most countries to support growth in affiliate sales and U.S. exports, indicating a strong demand for a wide variety of processed foods.
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- James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
- Markusen, James R., 1983. "Factor movements and commodity trade as complements," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3-4), pages 341-356, May.
- Burfisher, Mary & Robinson, Sherman & Thierfelder, Karen, 1992. "Agricultural and food policies in a United States-Mexico free trade area," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 117-139.
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