Fertilizer Subsidies and Smallholder Commercial Fertilizer Purchases: Crowding out, Leakage, and Policy Implications for Zambia
Two key determinants of the effect of a fertilizer subsidy program on total fertilizer use are (a) the extent to which subsidized fertilizer “crowds out” or “displaces” farmers’ purchases of fertilizer from commercial retailers, and (b) the extent to which fertilizer intended for government subsidies leaks out of the government channel and is resold as commercial fertilizer.
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- Zhiying Xu & William J. Burke & Thomas S. Jayne & Jones Govereh, 2009. "Do input subsidy programs "crowd in" or "crowd out" commercial market development? Modeling fertilizer demand in a two-channel marketing system," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 79-94, 01.
- Jacob Ricker-Gilbert & Thomas S. Jayne & Ephraim Chirwa, 2010. "Subsidies and Crowding Out: A Double-Hurdle Model of Fertilizer Demand in Malawi," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 93(1), pages 26-42.
- Banful, Afua B. & Nkonya, Ephraim & Oboh, Victor, 2010. "Constraints to fertilizer use in Nigeria," IFPRI discussion papers 1010, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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