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Nonstationarity in the Specification of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

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  • Zapata, Hector O.
  • Paudel, Krishna P.

Abstract

Numerous studies have addressed the question of the econometric specification of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This paper adds preliminary results on nonstationarity and its effect on functional form using a panel data set for the U.S. by state from 1929 to 1994. It is found that unit-root tests strongly support a unit root in pollutants (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) and income when testing individual states. The results from panel data unit root tests provide mixed evidence about nonstationarity in EKC data.

Suggested Citation

  • Zapata, Hector O. & Paudel, Krishna P., 2005. "Nonstationarity in the Specification of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19270, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea05:19270
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19270
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Roca, Jordi & Padilla, Emilio & Farre, Mariona & Galletto, Vittorio, 2001. "Economic growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: discussing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 85-99, October.
    2. Daniel L. Millimet & John A. List & Thanasis Stengos, 2003. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Real Progress or Misspecified Models?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, pages 1038-1047.
    3. Roger Perman & David I. Stern, 2003. "Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not exist," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, pages 325-347.
    4. Kao, Chihwa, 1999. "Spurious regression and residual-based tests for cointegration in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 1-44, May.
    5. List, John A. & Gallet, Craig A., 1999. "The environmental Kuznets curve: does one size fit all?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, pages 409-423.
    6. Jordi Roca & Emilio Padilla & Mariona Farré & Vittorio Galletto, 2001. "Economic growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: discussing the environmental Kuznets curve by hypothesis," Working Papers wp0101, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    7. Banerjee, Anindya, 1999. " Panel Data Unit Roots and Cointegration: An Overview," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 607-629, Special I.
    8. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    9. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-670, Special I.
    10. Harris, R. & Tzavalis, E., 1996. "Inference for Unit Roots in Dynamic Panels," Discussion Papers 9604, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
    11. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    12. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
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