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The Efficiency Of The Futures Market For Agricultural Commodities In The Uk

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  • Li, Jia
  • Hanrahan, Kevin F.
  • McErlean, Seamus

Abstract

This paper uses cointegration procedures to test for agricultural commodity futures market efficiency in the UK. Cointegration between spot and futures prices is a necessary condition for market efficiency where these prices are characterised by stochastic trends (Lai and Lai 1991). In addition, acceptance of the 'unbiasedness hypothesis' requires that the spot and lagged futures prices are cointegrated with the cointegrating vector (1, -1). Alternatively, Brenner and Kroner (1995) use a no-arbitrage cost-of-carry model to argue that the existence of cointegration between spot and futures prices depends on the time series properties of the cost-of-carry. According to Brenner and Kroner (1995), a tri-variate cointegrating relationship (the BK hypothesis) should exist among the spot price, the lagged futures price and the lagged interest rate (that component of cost-of-carry most likely to be non-stationary). These variables should be cointegrated with a cointegrating vector (1, -1, 1). Kellard (2002) finds that both bi-variate and tri-variate cointegrating relationships are found in a sample from the wheat futures market in the UK, and thus the so-called "cointegration paradox" emerges. As Kellard (2002) points out this paradox exists because it is theoretically impossible for two variables to be cointegrated with each other while simultaneously being cointegrated with a third variable. Using a larger sample of wheat futures market prices from LIFFE both the 'unbiasedness hypothesis' and the 'BK hypothesis' are examined. The results indicate that the 'BK hypothesis' should be rejected.

Suggested Citation

  • Li, Jia & Hanrahan, Kevin F. & McErlean, Seamus, 2004. "The Efficiency Of The Futures Market For Agricultural Commodities In The Uk," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20203, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea04:20203
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Graciela Kaminsky & Manmohan S. Kumar, 1990. "Efficiency in Commodity Futures Markets," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(3), pages 670-699, September.
    2. repec:oup:revage:v:24:y:2002:i:2:p:474-493. is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Park, Joon Y. & Phillips, Peter C.B., 1989. "Statistical Inference in Regressions with Integrated Processes: Part 2," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, pages 95-131.
    4. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    5. Tim Krehbiel & Lee C. Adkins, 1993. "Cointegration tests of the unbiased expectations hypothesis in metals markets," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 753-763, October.
    6. Andrew M. McKenzie & Bingrong Jiang & Harjanto Djunaidi & Linwood A. Hoffman & Eric J. Wailes, 2002. "Unbiasedness and Market Efficiency Tests of the U.S. Rice Futures Market," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 24(2), pages 474-493.
    7. Neil Kellard, 2002. "Evaluating Commodity Market Efficiency: Are Cointegration Tests Appropriate?," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(3), pages 513-529.
    8. Adusei Jumah & Sohbet Karbuz & Gerhard Runstler, 1999. "Interest rate differentials, market integration, and the efficiency of commodity futures markets," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 101-108.
    9. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    10. Baillie, Richard T & Myers, Robert J, 1991. "Bivariate GARCH Estimation of the Optimal Commodity Futures Hedge," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(2), pages 109-124, April-Jun.
    11. Brenner, Robin J. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1995. "Arbitrage, Cointegration, and Testing the Unbiasedness Hypothesis in Financial Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(01), pages 23-42, March.
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