IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Does Global-GAP policy reduce smallholder greenhouse gas emissions from French bean production in Central and Eastern regions of Kenya?


  • Shimon, Otieno Peter
  • Ogutu, Chris Ackello
  • Mburu, John
  • Nyikal, Rose Adhiambo


The need to minimize farm-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Kenya’s smallholder French bean production is gaining increased attention. French beam production has over the years adopted private voluntary standards notably Global-GAP that regulates both environmental and food safety aspects among farmers. Despite increasing global warming concerns, the impact of Global-GAP policy on smallholder farmers’ GHG emissions is unclear. This paper documents effects of Global-GAP policy on GHG emissions among French bean farmers in Central and Eastern regions of Kenya using household data collected between September and October 2013 from a random sample of 616 farmers. The study used a combined linear programming (LP) and life cycle assessment (LCA) models to examine the economic and environmental metrics and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression method to analyze factors affecting farm-level GHG emissions. Eco-efficiency, defined as net farm income divided by global warming potential, was used as an integrated indicator for assessing the economic and environmental feasibilities. There was a significant (p>0.05) higher eco-efficiency in Kenya Shillings per ton of carbon dioxide equivalence (Kshs per tCO2e) among Global-GAP policy complying farmers compared to non-complying farmers due to a reduced GWP (by 7 percent) and a higher net farm income given the optimum activity level used. The Global-GAP regulatory measures on the management practices seems to have caused economic advantage in exchange for environmental advantage (lower emissions in tCO2e by 7 percent). The regression model results found that Global-GAP compliance negatively and significantly affect GHG emissions. It further found that region of the farmer, French bean yields, gasoline fuel use, DAP fertilizer application and French bean seed positively and significantly affected smallholder farmer’ GHG emissions. More explicitly, the model using these explanatory variables indicates that smallholder farmers complying with Global-GAP policy are more likely to emit less GHG compared to non-complying farmers. The paper recommends inclusion of Global-GAP compliance and these other significant socio-economic factors in the smallholder French bean greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies by the government and industry stakeholders.

Suggested Citation

  • Shimon, Otieno Peter & Ogutu, Chris Ackello & Mburu, John & Nyikal, Rose Adhiambo, 2016. "Does Global-GAP policy reduce smallholder greenhouse gas emissions from French bean production in Central and Eastern regions of Kenya?," 2016 Fifth International Conference, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 246437, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaae16:246437
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.246437

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Asfaw, Solomon & Mithofer, Dagmar & Waibel, Hermann, 2007. "What Impact Are EU Supermarket Standards Having on Developing Countries Export of High-Value Horticultural Products? Evidence from Kenya," 105th Seminar, March 8-10, 2007, Bologna, Italy 7870, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Okello, Julius Juma & Narrod, Clare & Roy, Devesh, 2007. "Food safety requirements in African green bean exports and their impact on small farmers:," IFPRI discussion papers 737, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. C. Dolan & J. Humphrey, 2000. "Governance and Trade in Fresh Vegetables: The Impact of UK Supermarkets on the African Horticulture Industry," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 147-176.
    4. D Rigby & S Brown, 2003. "Organic Food and Global Trade: Is the Market Delivering Agricultural Sustainability?," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 0326, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Production Economics;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaae16:246437. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.