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Food safety requirements in African green bean exports and their impact on small farmers:

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  • Okello, Julius Juma
  • Narrod, Clare
  • Roy, Devesh

Abstract

"Many African countries have moved into the production of non-traditional agricultural products, in an effort to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. However, in order to access developed country markets and urban domestic markets, these products must meet food safety requirements, including protocols relating to pesticide residues, field and pack house operations, and traceability. Faced with stringent food safety requirements, companies that establish production centers in low-income countries might exclude poor farmers, thus negatively impacting the poor. We herein study this issue in the case of the green bean export sectors in three African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia. In the short-term, stringent food safety standards have screened out smallholders in all these countries, excluding them from the green bean export chain. However, some institutional arrangements have helped support the smallholders who continue to function in the export-oriented green bean supply chains. In particular, public-private partnerships have played a key role in creating farm-to-fork linkages that can satisfy market demands for food safety while retaining smallholders in the supply chain. Furthermore, organized producer groups capable of monitoring their own food safety requirements through collective action have become attractive to buyers who are looking for ways to ensure traceability and reduce transaction costs." from Authors' Abstract

Suggested Citation

  • Okello, Julius Juma & Narrod, Clare & Roy, Devesh, 2007. "Food safety requirements in African green bean exports and their impact on small farmers:," IFPRI discussion papers 737, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:737
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    1. Elizabeth M. M. Q. Farina & Thomas Reardon, 2000. "Agrifood Grades and Standards in the Extended Mercosur: Their Role in the Changing Agrifood System," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1170-1176.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kareem, Olayinka Idowu, 2016. "Food safety regulations and fish trade: Evidence from European Union-Africa trade relations," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 18-25.
    2. Cervantes-Godoy, Dalila & Sparling, David & Avendano, Belem & Calvin, Linda, 2007. "North American Retailers and Their Impact on Food Chains," 2007 NAAMIC Workshop IV: Contemporary Drivers of Integration 163902, North American Agrifood Market Integration Consortium (NAAMIC).
    3. Muriithi, Beatrice, 2015. "Smallholder Horticultural Commercialization: Gender Roels and Implications for Household Well-being in Kenya," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212516, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. repec:ner:leuven:urn:hdl:123456789/335950 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Fischer, Elisabeth & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Linking Smallholders to Markets: Determinants and Impacts of Farmer Collective Action in Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1255-1268.
    6. Julius Okello & Ruth Okello, 2010. "Do EU pesticide standards promote environmentally-friendly production of fresh export vegetables in developing countries? The evidence from Kenyan green bean industry," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 12(3), pages 341-355, June.
    7. Liesbeth Colen & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen, 2012. "Private Standards, Trade and Poverty: GlobalGAP and Horticultural Employment in Senegal," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(8), pages 1073-1088, August.
    8. Muriithi, Beatrice W. & Matz, Julia Anna, 2015. "Welfare effects of vegetable commercialization: Evidence from smallholder producers in Kenya," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 80-91.
    9. Nava Ashraf & Xavier Giné & Dean Karlan, 2009. "Finding Missing Markets (and a Disturbing Epilogue): Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(4), pages 973-990.
    10. Vandeplas, Anneleen, 2011. "Multinationals or Cooperatives: Does it Matter to Farmers? - A Study of the Dairy Sector in Punjab (India)," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 115545, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Knutson, Bob & Josling, Tim, 2008. "A new generation of standards: implications for the Caribbean and Latin America," Documentos de Proyectos 261, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    12. Narrod, Clare & Roy, Devesh & Okello, Julius & Avendaño, Belem & Rich, Karl & Thorat, Amit, 2009. "Public-private partnerships and collective action in high value fruit and vegetable supply chains," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 8-15, February.
    13. Paggi, Mechel S. & Yamazaki, Fumiko & Ribera, Luis A. & Knutson, Ronald D. & Anciso, Juan & Palma, Marco A. & Noel, Jay E., 2010. "Comparative Producer Costs Of Gap And Ghp Standards: Can The Playing Field Be Made Level?," 115th Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar, September 15-17, 2010, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany 116406, European Association of Agricultural Economists;Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    14. Henson, Spencer & Masakure, Oliver & Cranfield, John, 2011. "Do Fresh Produce Exporters in Sub-Saharan Africa Benefit from GlobalGAP Certification?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 375-386, March.
    15. Shimon, Otieno Peter & Ogutu, Chris Ackello & Mburu, John & Nyikal, Rose Adhiambo, 2016. "Does Global-GAP policy reduce smallholder greenhouse gas emissions from French bean production in Central and Eastern regions of Kenya?," 2016 AAAE Fifth International Conference, September 23-26, 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 246437, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    16. Narrod, Clare & Roy, Devesh & Okello, Julius & Avendaño, Belem & Rich, Karl, 2007. "The role of public-private partnerships and collective action in ensuring smallholder participation in high value fruit and vegetable supply chains:," CAPRi working papers 70, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    17. Olayinka Idowu Kareem, 2014. "The European Union Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Africa’s Exports," RSCAS Working Papers 2014/98, European University Institute.

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    Keywords

    International food safety standards; Small farmers; Supply chains; Agricultural trade; Public-private partnerships;

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