The determinants of research and development and intellectual property usage among Australian Companies, 1989 to 2002
This paper traces the innovation pathways of new creations from R & D activity through to intellectual property (IP) applications using enterprise panel data from 1989 to 2002. Our estimation method explicitly addresses the selection issues associated with missing R&D data which is a common problem among this type of data set. We find that R&D activity is a highly path dependent process that relies heavily on firm specific effects. These firm specific effects were subsequently found to be correlated with managerial style Â– more aggressive and intuitive managers have higher R&D ceteris paribus Â– and extensive use of incentive schemes for employees within the firm. In addition, we find that R&D is higher when the previous yearÂ’s enterprise debt ratio is lower, the speed of technological change is faster, the firmÂ’s ability to absorb knowledge spillovers is greater and the product market is less contestable. Furthermore, these firms appear to be using the various methods of appropriation, IP and non-IP, as complementary packages to capture the quasi-rents from previous R&D expenditure rather than as substitutes.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2004|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Adelaide SA 5005|
Phone: (+ 61 8) 8303 5672
Fax: (+ 61 8) 8223 1460
Web page: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/cies/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A, 1986. "Patents and R and D: Is There a Lag?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(2), pages 265-283, June.
- Laurie Hunter, 2002. "Intellectual Capital: Accumulation and Appropriation," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2002n22, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
- Jaffe, Adam B, 1986.
"Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
- Adam B. Jaffe, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits and Market Value," NBER Working Papers 1815, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- J. M. Keynes, 1937. "The General Theory of Employment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(2), pages 209-223.
- Richard Levin & Peter C. Reiss, 1984. "Tests of a Schumpeterian Model of R&D and Market Structure," NBER Chapters,in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 175-208 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zvi Griliches, 1984. "Market Value, R&D, and Patents," NBER Chapters,in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 249-252 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-596, September.
- Bronwyn H. Hall & Robert E. Hall, 1993. "The Value and Performance of U.S. Corporations," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 24(1), pages 1-50.
- Heinz Hollenstein, 2002. "Determinants of the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)," WIFO Working Papers 183, WIFO.
- Spyros Arvanitis, 2008. "Explaining Innovative Activity In Service Industries: Micro Data Evidence For Switzerland," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 209-225.
- Dietmar Harhoff & Francis Narin & F. M. Scherer & Katrin Vopel, 1999. "Citation Frequency And The Value Of Patented Inventions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(3), pages 511-515, August.
- Rothwell, R. & Freeman, C. & Horlsey, A. & Jervis, V. T. P. & Robertson, A. B. & Townsend, J., 1974. "SAPPHO updated - project SAPPHO phase II," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 258-291, November.
- Greenhalgh, C & Longland, M & Bosworth, D, 2001. "Technological Activity and Employment in a Panel of UK Firms," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(3), pages 260-282, August.
- Greenhalgh, Christine & Longland, Mark, 2001. " Intellectual Property in UK Firms: Creating Intangible Assets and Distributing the Benefits via Wages and Jobs," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(0), pages 671-696, Special I.
- Anne Leahy & Joanne Loundes & Elizabeth Webster & Jongsay Yong, 2003. "Industrial Capabilities and Productivity in Victoria: Part I The Company Survey," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2003n12, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
- Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- John Scott, 1984. "Firm versus Industry Variability in R&D Intensity," NBER Chapters,in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 233-248 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
- Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & John van Reenen, 1999. "Market Share, Market Value and Innovation in a Panel of British Manufacturing Firms," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(3), pages 529-554.
- Nicholas Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2002. "Patents, Real Options and Firm Performance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(478), pages 97-116, March.
- Keith W. Chauvin & Mark Hirschey, 1997. "Market structure and the value of growth," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(3), pages 247-254.
- Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1988. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Paul H. Jensen & Elizabeth Webster, 2004. "Examining Biases in Measures of Firm Innovation," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2004n10, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
- Paul Stoneman & Otto Toivanen, 2001. "The Impact of Revised Recommended Accounting Practices on R&D Reporting by UK Firms," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 123-136.
- Christine Greenhalgh & Mark Longland, 2002. "Running to Stand Still? - Intellectual Property and Value Added in Innovating Firms," Economics Series Working Papers 134, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Chaoshin Chiao, 2002. "Relationship between debt, R&D and physical investment, evidence from US firm-level data," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 105-121.