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The determinants of research and development and intellectual property usage among Australian Companies, 1989 to 2002

  • William Griffiths

    (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne, Australia)

  • Elizabeth Webster

    (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne, Australia)

This paper traces the innovation pathways of new creations from R & D activity through to intellectual property (IP) applications using enterprise panel data from 1989 to 2002. Our estimation method explicitly addresses the selection issues associated with missing R&D data which is a common problem among this type of data set. We find that R&D activity is a highly path dependent process that relies heavily on firm specific effects. These firm specific effects were subsequently found to be correlated with managerial style – more aggressive and intuitive managers have higher R&D ceteris paribus – and extensive use of incentive schemes for employees within the firm. In addition, we find that R&D is higher when the previous year’s enterprise debt ratio is lower, the speed of technological change is faster, the firm’s ability to absorb knowledge spillovers is greater and the product market is less contestable. Furthermore, these firms appear to be using the various methods of appropriation, IP and non-IP, as complementary packages to capture the quasi-rents from previous R&D expenditure rather than as substitutes.

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File URL: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/cies/papers/0415.pdf
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Paper provided by University of Adelaide, Centre for International Economic Studies in its series Centre for International Economic Studies Working Papers with number 2004-15.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:adl:cieswp:2004-15
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  2. Heinz Hollenstein, 2002. "Determinants of the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)," WIFO Working Papers 183, WIFO.
  3. Anne Leahy & Joanne Loundes & Elizabeth Webster & Jongsay Yong, 2003. "Industrial Capabilities and Productivity in Victoria: Part I The Company Survey," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2003n12, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
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  7. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
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  9. John Scott, 1984. "Firm versus Industry Variability in R&D Intensity," NBER Chapters, in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 233-248 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Laurie Hunter, 2002. "Intellectual Capital: Accumulation and Appropriation," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2002n22, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  11. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1988. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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  16. Chaoshin Chiao, 2002. "Relationship between debt, R&D and physical investment, evidence from US firm-level data," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 105-121.
  17. Zvi Griliches, 1984. "Market Value, R&D, and Patents," NBER Chapters, in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 249-252 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Richard Levin & Peter C. Reiss, 1984. "Tests of a Schumpeterian Model of R&D and Market Structure," NBER Chapters, in: R&D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 175-208 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Christine Greenhalgh & Mark Longland, 2002. "Running to Stand Still? - Intellectual Property and Value Added in Innovating Firms," Economics Series Working Papers 134, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  20. Spyros Arvanitis, 2008. "Explaining Innovative Activity In Service Industries: Micro Data Evidence For Switzerland," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 209-225.
  21. Dietmar Harhoff & Francis Narin & F. M. Scherer & Katrin Vopel, 1999. "Citation Frequency And The Value Of Patented Inventions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(3), pages 511-515, August.
  22. Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-96, September.
  23. Greenhalgh, Christine & Longland, Mark, 2001. " Intellectual Property in UK Firms: Creating Intangible Assets and Distributing the Benefits via Wages and Jobs," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(0), pages 671-96, Special I.
  24. Hall, Bronwyn H & Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A, 1986. "Patents and R and D: Is There a Lag?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(2), pages 265-83, June.
  25. Rothwell, R. & Freeman, C. & Horlsey, A. & Jervis, V. T. P. & Robertson, A. B. & Townsend, J., 1974. "SAPPHO updated - project SAPPHO phase II," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 258-291, November.
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