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Risk and Return: Long-Run Relationships, Fractional Cointegration, and Return Predictability

  • Tim Bollerslev

    ()

    (Duke University and CREATES)

  • Daniela Osterrieder

    ()

    (Aarhus University and CREATES)

  • Natalia Sizova

    ()

    (Rice University)

  • George Tauchen

    ()

    (Duke University and CREATES)

The dynamic dependencies in financial market volatility are generally well described by a long-memory fractionally integrated process. At the same time, the volatility risk premium, defined as the difference between the ex-post realized volatility and the market’s ex-ante expectation thereof, tends to be much less persistent and well described by a short-memory process. Using newly available intraday data for the S&P 500 and the VIX volatility index, coupled with frequency domain inference procedures that allow us to focus on specific parts of the spectra, we show that the existing empirical evidence based on daily and coarser sampled data carries over to the high-frequency setting. Guided by these empirical findings, we formulate and estimate a fractionally cointegrated VAR model for the two high-frequency volatility series and the corresponding high-frequency S&P 500 returns. Consistent with the implications from a stylized equilibrium model that directly links the realized and expected volatilities to returns, we show that the equilibrium variance risk premium estimated with the intraday data within the fractionally cointegrated system results in non-trivial return predictability over longer interdaily and monthly horizons. These results in turn suggest that much of the existing literature seeking to establish a risk-return tradeoff relationship between expected returns and expected volatilities may be misguided, and that the variance risk premium provides a much better proxy for the true economic uncertainty that is being rewarded by the market.

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Paper provided by School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus in its series CREATES Research Papers with number 2011-51.

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Length: 40
Date of creation: 21 Dec 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:aah:create:2011-51
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.econ.au.dk/afn/

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  1. Tim Bollerslev & George Tauchen & Hao Zhou, 2009. "Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(11), pages 4463-4492, November.
  2. David K. Backus & Allan W. Gregory, 1992. "Theoretical Relations Between Risk Premiums and Conditional Variances," Working Papers 92-18a, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  3. Ding, Zhuanxin & Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert F., 1993. "A long memory property of stock market returns and a new model," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 83-106, June.
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  9. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. " On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
  10. Torben G. Andersen & Tim Bollerslev & Francis X. Diebold & Paul Labys, 2001. "Modeling and Forecasting Realized Volatility," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 01-01, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  11. Sowell, Fallaw, 1992. "Modeling long-run behavior with the fractional ARIMA model," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 277-302, April.
  12. Harris, Lawrence, 1986. "A transaction data study of weekly and intradaily patterns in stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 99-117, May.
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  14. Tim Bollerslev & Michael Gibson & Hao Zhou, 2007. "Dynamic Estimation of Volatility Risk Premia and Investor Risk Aversion from Option-Implied and Realized Volatilities," CREATES Research Papers 2007-16, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  15. John Y. Campbell & Ludger Hentschel, 1991. "No News is Good News: An Asymmetric Model of Changing Volatility in Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 3742, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Gurdip Bakshi & Nikunj Kapadia, 2003. "Delta-Hedged Gains and the Negative Market Volatility Risk Premium," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 527-566.
  17. Chernov, Mikhail, 2007. "On the Role of Risk Premia in Volatility Forecasting," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 25, pages 411-426, October.
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  20. Andersen, Torben G & Bollerslev, Tim, 1998. "Answering the Skeptics: Yes, Standard Volatility Models Do Provide Accurate Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 885-905, November.
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  22. Alex Maynard & Aaron Smallwood & Mark E. Wohar, 2013. "Long Memory Regressors and Predictive Testing: A Two-stage Rebalancing Approach," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(3), pages 318-360, November.
  23. Johansen, SØren, 2008. "A Representation Theory For A Class Of Vector Autoregressive Models For Fractional Processes," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 651-676, June.
  24. Engle, Robert F & Lilien, David M & Robins, Russell P, 1987. "Estimating Time Varying Risk Premia in the Term Structure: The Arch-M Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 391-407, March.
  25. Baillie, Richard T. & Bollerslev, Tim, 2000. "The forward premium anomaly is not as bad as you think," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 471-488, August.
  26. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Diebold, Francis X. & Ebens, Heiko, 2001. "The distribution of realized stock return volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 43-76, July.
  27. Shimotsu, Katsumi & Phillips, Peter C.B., 2006. "Local Whittle estimation of fractional integration and some of its variants," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 130(2), pages 209-233, February.
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