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Ayuda al desarrollo, capital humano, capital social y crecimiento: una visión de la situación en Latinoamérica

In: Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5

Author

Listed:
  • Isabel Neira Gómez

    (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela)

  • María Cadaval Sampedro

    (Universidad Santiago de Compostela)

  • Marta Portela

    (Universidad Santiago de Compostela)

Abstract

El papel de la ayuda al desarrollo en el crecimiento de las economías latinoamericanas ha sido objeto de numerosos estudios, provenientes en muchos casos de investigadores del Banco Mundial, así en los trabajos de P. Boone (1994), P Mosley (1995), Hadji-Michael et al (1995), Feizioglu et al (1998), Burnise y Dollar (2000), Guillamont y Chauvet (1999), se analiza la eficacia de la ayuda al desarrollo en el crecimiento de las economías. La mayor parte de estos trabajos presentaban problemas de significatividad de la ayuda, muchos ellos derivados del carácter errático de la misma, así como los bajos valores que representan en relación al PIB en la mayor parte de los países receptores. Más recientemente, son varios los trabajos que han tratado de incluir más factores que podrían afectar a la eficacia de la ayuda y, por lo tanto, en el efecto que la misma puede estar suponiendo en el crecimiento de estas economías. Así Choritz (2002), Nanthikesan (2003) y Simon (2003), Knack (2001), señalan la necesidad de disponer de un mejor conocimiento sobre el capital social existente en una región antes de desarrollar las políticas y los proyectos de desarrollo. Se deben identificar las instituciones existentes, las relaciones sociales y las redes que están constituidas y que pueden ayudar o entorpecer el proceso de crecimiento. Según se recoge en la reciente base de datos que han elaborado Kaufmann y otros (1999) en el Banco Mundial, es claro que la "gobernanza importa" ("Governance Matters") y que cada vez más está siendo un criterio de selección de ayuda al desarrollo En este artículo analizamos la evolución del capital humano, capital social, la ayuda al desarrollo y el crecimiento económico de un conjunto de economías Latinoamericanas, con el objetivo de identificar las buenas prácticas asociadas a los indicadores antes mencionados, así como los problemas derivados de la falta de los mismos. Estudiaremos de modo especial la ayuda al desarrollo en materia, planteando un modelo de crecimiento en el que se consideran los aspectos a los que nos hemos referido anteriormente.

Suggested Citation

  • Isabel Neira Gómez & María Cadaval Sampedro & Marta Portela, 2010. "Ayuda al desarrollo, capital humano, capital social y crecimiento: una visión de la situación en Latinoamérica," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 5, in: María Jesús Mancebón-Torrubia & Domingo P. Ximénez-de-Embún & José María Gómez-Sancho & Gregorio Gim (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 5, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 53, pages 1044-1060, Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
  • Handle: RePEc:aec:ieed05:05-53
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    References listed on IDEAS

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