IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/b/bis/bisbps/116.html
   My bibliography  Save this book

CBDCs beyond borders: results from a survey of central banks

Author

Listed:
  • Raphael Auer
  • Codruta Boar
  • Giulio Cornelli
  • Jon Frost
  • Henry Holden
  • Andreas Wehrli

Abstract

Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) could ease current frictions in cross-border payments – and particularly so if central banks factor an international dimension into CBDC design from the outset. Based on a survey of 50 central banks in the first quarter of 2021, this paper explores initial thinking on the cross-border use of CBDCs. While most central banks have yet to take a firm decision on issuing a CBDC, the survey responses show a tentative inclination towards allowing use of a future CBDC by tourists and other non-residents domestically. They have a cautious approach to allowing use of a CBDC beyond their own jurisdiction. Concerns about the economic and monetary implications of cross-border CBDC use and about private sector global stablecoins are taken seriously. At the wholesale level, 28% of surveyed central banks are considering options to make CBDCs interoperable by forming multi-CBDC arrangements. This involves arrangements that enhance compatibility, interlink or even integrate multiple CBDCs into a single payments system. Finally, almost 14% of respondents are considering an active role for the central bank in FX conversion.

Suggested Citation

  • Raphael Auer & Codruta Boar & Giulio Cornelli & Jon Frost & Henry Holden & Andreas Wehrli, 2021. "CBDCs beyond borders: results from a survey of central banks," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 116, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:bisbps:116
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap116.pdf
    File Function: Full PDF document
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap116.htm
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Auer, Raphael & Monnet, Cyril & Shin, Hyun Song, 2021. "Distributed Ledgers and the Governance of Money," CEPR Discussion Papers 16752, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Eduardo Borensztein & Andrew Berg, 2000. "Full Dollarization; The Pros and Cons," IMF Economic Issues 24, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Mr. Eduardo Borensztein & Mr. Andrew Berg, 2000. "The Pros and Cons of Full Dollarization," IMF Working Papers 2000/050, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Raphael A. Auer & Giulio Cornelli & Jon Frost, 2020. "Rise of the Central Bank Digital Currencies: Drivers, Approaches and Technologies," CESifo Working Paper Series 8655, CESifo.
    5. Codruta Boar & Andreas Wehrli, 2021. "Ready, steady, go? - Results of the third BIS survey on central bank digital currency," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 114, June.
    6. Douglas Arner & Raphael Auer & Jon Frost, 2020. "Stablecoins: risks, potential and regulation," Revista de Estabilidad Financiera, Banco de España, issue Autumn.
    7. Douglas Arner & Raphael Auer & Jon Frost, 2020. "Stablecoins: potential, risks and regulation," BIS Working Papers 905, Bank for International Settlements.
    8. Kahn, Charles M. & Roberds, William, 2009. "Why pay? An introduction to payments economics," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-23, January.
    9. Mr. Eduardo Borensztein & Mr. Andrew Berg, 2000. "Full Dollarization: The Pros and Cons," IMF Economic Issues 2000/004, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Jon Frost & Hyun Song Shin & Peter Wierts, 2020. "An early stablecoin? The Bank of Amsterdam and the governance of money," Working Papers 696, DNB.
    11. Gabriele Galati, 2002. "Settlement risk in foreign exchange markets and CLS Bank," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, December.
    12. Antonio Diez de los Rios & Yu Zhu, 2020. "CBDC and Monetary Sovereignty," Staff Analytical Notes 2020-5, Bank of Canada.
    13. Tara Rice & Goetz von Peter & Codruta Boar, 2020. "On the global retreat of correspondent banks," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    14. Raphael Auer & Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin, 2021. "Permissioned Distributed Ledgers and the Governance of Money," Diskussionsschriften dp2101, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    15. Raphael Auer & Rainer Boehme, 2020. "The technology of retail central bank digital currency," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    16. Morten Linnemann Bech & Umar Faruqui & Takeshi Shirakami, 2020. "Payments without borders," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    17. Adachi, Mitsutoshi & Cominetta, Matteo & Kaufmann, Christoph & van der Kraaij, Anton, 2020. "A regulatory and financial stability perspective on global stablecoins," Macroprudential Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 10.
    18. Morten Linnemann Bech & Jenny Hancock, 2020. "Innovations in payments," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anneke Kosse & Ilaria Mattei, 2022. "Gaining momentum – Results of the 2021 BIS survey on central bank digital currencies," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 125.
    2. Riccardo De Bonis & Giuseppe Ferrero, 2022. "Technological progress and institutional adaptations: the case of the Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 690, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    3. Ferrari Minesso, Massimo & Mehl, Arnaud & Stracca, Livio, 2022. "Central bank digital currency in an open economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 54-68.
    4. Le, Anh H., 2022. "Central bank digital currency and cryptocurrency in emerging markets," MPRA Paper 114734, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Sally Chen & Tirupam Goel & Han Qiu & Ilhyock Shim, 2022. "CBDCs in emerging market economies," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 123.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Raphael Auer & Philipp Haene & Henry Holden, 2021. "Multi-CBDC arrangements and the future of cross-border payments," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 115, June.
    2. Raphael A. Auer & Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin, 2021. "Distributed Ledgers and the Governance of Money," CESifo Working Paper Series 9441, CESifo.
    3. Raphael Auer & Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin, 2021. "Permissioned Distributed Ledgers and the Governance of Money," Diskussionsschriften dp2101, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    4. Erik Feyen & Jon Frost & Harish Natarajan & Tara Rice, 2021. "What Does Digital Money Mean for Emerging Market and Developing Economies?," Springer Books, in: Raghavendra Rau & Robert Wardrop & Luigi Zingales (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of Technological Finance, pages 217-241, Springer.
    5. Raphael Auer & David Tercero-Lucas, 2021. "Distrust or speculation? the socioeconomic drivers of U.S. cryptocurrency investments," BIS Working Papers 951, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Raphael A. Auer, 2022. "Embedded Supervision: How to Build Regulation into Decentralised Finance," CESifo Working Paper Series 9771, CESifo.
    7. Alexandra Mitschke, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currencies and Monetary Policy Effectiveness in the Euro Area," Working Papers Dissertations 74, Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
    8. Raphael Auer & Rainer Boehme, 2021. "Central bank digital currency: the quest for minimally invasive technology," BIS Working Papers 948, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Agustín Carstens, 2020. "Shaping the future of payments," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    10. Paulo Rupino Cunha & Paulo Melo & Helder Sebastião, 2021. "From Bitcoin to Central Bank Digital Currencies: Making Sense of the Digital Money Revolution," Future Internet, MDPI, vol. 13(7), pages 1-19, June.
    11. Raphael Auer & Marc Farag & Ulf Lewrick & Lovrenc Orazem & Markus Zoss, 2022. "Banking in the shadow of Bitcoin? The institutional adoption of cryptocurrencies," BIS Working Papers 1013, Bank for International Settlements.
    12. Douglas Arner & Raphael Auer & Jon Frost, 2020. "Stablecoins: potential, risks and regulation," BIS Working Papers 905, Bank for International Settlements.
    13. Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin & Jon Frost & Leonardo Gambacorta & Raphael Auer & Tara Rice, 2022. "Central Bank Digital Currencies: Motives, Economic Implications, and the Research Frontier," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 14(1), pages 697-721, August.
    14. Beckerman, Paul, 2001. "Dollarization and semi-dollarization in Ecuador," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2643, The World Bank.
    15. Arellano, Cristina & Heathcote, Jonathan, 2010. "Dollarization and financial integration," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 145(3), pages 944-973, May.
    16. Jean-Pierre Allegret, 2007. "Quels régimes de change pour les marchés émergents ? Les solutions de coins en question," Post-Print halshs-00258333, HAL.
    17. Léonce Ndikumana, 2003. "Capital Flows, Capital Account Regimes, and Foreign Exchange Rate Regimes in Africa," Working Papers wp55, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    18. Carlos Viñuela & Juan Sapena & Gonzalo Wandosell, 2020. "The Future of Money and the Central Bank Digital Currency Dilemma," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(22), pages 1-22, November.
    19. A. G. Malliaris, 2005. "Global monetary instability: The role of the IMF, the EU and NAFTA," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Economic Uncertainty, Instabilities And Asset Bubbles Selected Essays, chapter 20, pages 323-343, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    20. Charlotte J. Lundgren & Mr. Felix Fischer & Mr. Samir Jahjah, 2013. "Making Monetary Policy More Effective: The Case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo," IMF Working Papers 2013/226, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bis:bisbps:116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bisssch.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Christian Beslmeisl (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bisssch.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.