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Effects of Norms and Opportunity Cost of Time on Household Recycling

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  • Bente Halvorsen

Abstract

Social and moral norms and the opportunity cost of time will affect household recycling efforts. A model is developed to describe how norms affect the recycling decision through feelings of self-respect, guilty conscience, and warm-glow, as well as respect in, and sanctions from, the community. We find that the opportunity cost of time has a significant negative effect on household recycling. All indicators of warm-glow, social, and moral norms increase household recycling efforts. We find no evidence of crowding-out, neither when recycling is perceived as mandatory, nor when economic incentives are introduced in the form of a differentiated garbage fee.

Suggested Citation

  • Bente Halvorsen, 2008. "Effects of Norms and Opportunity Cost of Time on Household Recycling," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(3), pages 501-516.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:landec:v:84:y:2008:i:3:p:501-516
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bente Halvorsen & Kjartan Sœlensminde, 1998. "Differences between Willingness-to-Pay Estimates from Open-Ended and Discrete-Choice Contingent Valuation Methods: The Effects of Heteroscedasticity," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(2), pages 262-282.
    2. Tiller, Kelly & Jakus, Paul M. & Park, William M., 1997. "Household Willingness To Pay For Dropoff Recycling," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 22(02), December.
    3. Hong Seonghoon & Adams Richard M. & Love H. Alan, 1993. "An Economic Analysis of Household Recycling of Solid Wastes: The Case of Portland, Oregon," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 136-146, September.
    4. Johansson,Per-Olov, 1993. "Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Change," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521447928.
    5. Jakus, Paul M. & Tiller, Kelly & Park, William M., 1996. "Generation Of Recyclables By Rural Households," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 21(01), July.
    6. Jenkins, Robin R. & Martinez, Salvador A. & Palmer, Karen & Podolsky, Michael J., 2003. "The determinants of household recycling: a material-specific analysis of recycling program features and unit pricing," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 294-318, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Yalin Yuan & Hisako Nomura & Yoshifumi Takahashi & Mitsuyasu Yabe, 2016. "Model of Chinese Household Kitchen Waste Separation Behavior: A Case Study in Beijing City," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(10), pages 1-15, October.
    2. Abbott, Andrew & Nandeibam, Shasikanta & O'Shea, Lucy, 2013. "Recycling: Social norms and warm-glow revisited," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 10-18.
    3. W. Kip Viscusi & Joel Huber & Jason Bell, 2011. "Promoting Recycling: Private Values, Social Norms, and Economic Incentives," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(3), pages 65-70, May.
    4. D'Amato, Alessio & Mancinelli, Susanna & Zoli, Mariangela, 2016. "Complementarity vs substitutability in waste management behaviors," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 84-94.
    5. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:5:p:1327-:d:143127 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ivlevs, Artjoms, 2017. "Adverse Welfare Shocks and Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Evidence from the Global Economic Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 11133, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Cecere, Grazia & Mancinelli, Susanna & Mazzanti, Massimiliano, 2014. "Waste prevention and social preferences: the role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 163-176.
    8. Shigeru Matsumoto, 2014. "Spouses’ time allocation to pro-environmental activities: who is saving the environment at home?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 159-176, March.
    9. Gorm Kipperberg & Douglas Larson, 2012. "Heterogeneous Preferences for Community Recycling Programs," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 53(4), pages 577-604, December.
    10. Artjoms Ivlevs, 2017. "Adverse Welfare Shocks and Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Evidence from the Global Economic Crisis," Working Papers id:12260, eSocialSciences.
    11. W. Kip Viscusi & Joel Huber & Jason Bell & Caroline Cecot, 2013. "Discontinuous Behavioral Responses to Recycling Laws and Plastic Water Bottle Deposits," American Law and Economics Review, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 110-155.
    12. Damiano Fiorillo, 2013. "Household waste recycling: national survey evidence from Italy," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 56(8), pages 1125-1151, October.
    13. Carattini, Stefano & Baranzini, Andrea & Lalive, Rafael, 2018. "Is Taxing Waste a Waste of Time? Evidence from a Supreme Court Decision," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 131-151.
    14. Bente Halvorsen, 2010. "Good girl-bad boy. Making identity statements when answering a questionnaire," Discussion Papers 609, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    15. Ferrara, Ida & Missios, Paul, 2016. "Reduce, Reuse or Recycle? Household Decisions over Waste Prevention and Recycling," MPRA Paper 74863, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. FIORILLO, Damiano & SENATORE, Luigi, 2016. "Self Image and Environmental Attitude and Behavior," CELPE Discussion Papers 140, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
    17. repec:cbu:jrnlec:y:2017:v:2special:p:5-11 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Hua Zhang & Zong-Guo Wen, 2014. "Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW) Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(9), pages 1-21, September.
    19. Campbell, Benjamin L. & Khachatryan, Hayk & Behe, Bridget K. & Hall, Charles & Dennis, Jennifer, 2014. "Crunch the Can or Throw the Bottle? Effect of “Bottle Deposit Laws” and Municipal Recycling Programs," 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota 170379, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    20. Ferrara, Ida & Missios, Paul, 2011. "A Cross-Country Study of Household Waste Prevention and Recycling: Assessing the Effective of Policy Instruments," MPRA Paper 70811, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Kinnaman, Thomas C. & Shinkuma, Takayoshi & Yamamoto, Masashi, 2014. "The socially optimal recycling rate: Evidence from Japan," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 54-70.
    22. Shigeru Matsumoto, 2014. "The Opportunity Cost of Pro-Environmental Activities: Spending Time to Promote the Environment," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 119-130, March.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • H42 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Publicly Provided Private Goods

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