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Differences between Willingness-to-Pay Estimates from Open-Ended and Discrete-Choice Contingent Valuation Methods: The Effects of Heteroscedasticity

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  • Bente Halvorsen
  • Kjartan Sœlensminde

Abstract

Most comparative studies find that the discrete-choice contingent valuation method (DC-CVM) yields higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates than the open-ended (OE) format. In this paper, we discuss and test several hypotheses to explain why WTP estimates from OE and DC-CVM questions differ. We find that WTP estimates from discrete-choice data are very sensitive to assumptions made about the random utility. In particular, violation of the homoscedasticity assumption may lead to biased WTP estimates if the error terms are correlated with the cost. This violation was a main source of difference in WTP estimates in our studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Bente Halvorsen & Kjartan Sœlensminde, 1998. "Differences between Willingness-to-Pay Estimates from Open-Ended and Discrete-Choice Contingent Valuation Methods: The Effects of Heteroscedasticity," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(2), pages 262-282.
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:landec:v:74:y:1998:i:2:p:262-282
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    Cited by:

    1. Farr, Marina & Stoeckl, Natalie & Alam Beg, Rabiul, 2014. "The non-consumptive (tourism) ‘value’ of marine species in the Northern section of the Great Barrier Reef," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 89-103.
    2. Herbes, Carsten & Friege, Christian & Baldo, Davide & Mueller, Kai-Markus, 2015. "Willingness to pay lip service? Applying a neuroscience-based method to WTP for green electricity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 562-572.
    3. Sergio Ardila & Ricardo Quiroga & William J. Vaughan, 1998. "A Review of the Use of Contingent Valuation Methods in Project Analysis at the Inter-American Development Bank," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 33298, Inter-American Development Bank.
    4. Schlapfer, Felix, 2006. "Survey protocol and income effects in the contingent valuation of public goods: A meta-analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 415-429, May.
    5. Sælensminde, Kjartan, 2003. "Embedding effects in valuation of non-market goods," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 59-72, January.
    6. Cameron, Trudy Ann & Poe, Gregory L. & Ethier, Robert G. & Schulze, William D., 2002. "Alternative Non-market Value-Elicitation Methods: Are the Underlying Preferences the Same?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 391-425, November.
    7. Fredrik Carlsson & Peter Martinsson, 2001. "Willingness to pay for reduction in air pollution: a multilevel analysis," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 4(1), pages 17-27, March.
    8. Henrik Hammar & Olof Johansson-Stenman, 2004. "The value of risk-free cigarettes - do smokers underestimate the risk?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(1), pages 59-71.
    9. Kuo, Chung-Wei & Jou, Rong-Chang, 2017. "Willingness to pay for airlines’ premium economy class: The perspective of passengers," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 134-142.
    10. Bente Halvorsen, 2008. "Effects of Norms and Opportunity Cost of Time on Household Recycling," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(3), pages 501-516.
    11. Saelensminde, Kjartan, 2006. "Causes and consequences of lexicographic choices in stated choice studies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 331-340, September.
    12. Rosado, Marcia A. & Cunha-e-Sa, Maria A. & Ducla-Soares, Maria M. & Nunes, Luis C., 2000. "Combining Averting Behavior and Contingent Valuation Data: An Application to Drinking Water Treatment," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp392, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • Q26 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources

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