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MRIO linkages and Switzerland's CO2 profile:


  • Octavio Fernandez-Amador


  • Joseph F. Francois


  • Patrick Tomberger



We examine the importance of linkages between the Swiss economy and other regions (especially Western Europe) for Switzerland's CO2 profile. Overall, both final production and consumption carbon footprints and intensities are much larger than (about double) the footprint from territorial production, which is the traditional measure used within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The carbon footprint of territorial production decreased during 1997-2011, whereas the carbon footprint of consumption remained quite steady and the footprint from final production increased over the same period. All carbon intensities have decreased, however, though the differential between territorial production and final production and consumption has remained the same. These findings highlight the role of emissions embodied in trade flows, particularly with the group of developed members of the European Union, for a small open economy like Switzerland. They also call for the use of consumption-based criteria, together with criteria based on territorial production and final production, to establish and monitor the Swiss carbon footprint.

Suggested Citation

  • Octavio Fernandez-Amador & Joseph F. Francois & Patrick Tomberger, 2016. "MRIO linkages and Switzerland's CO2 profile:," Aussenwirtschaft, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economics Research, vol. 67(03), pages 47-63, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:usg:auswrt:2016:67:03:47-63

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Aichele, Rahel & Felbermayr, Gabriel, 2012. "Kyoto and the carbon footprint of nations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 336-354.
    2. Richard Baldwin & Javier Lopez-Gonzalez, 2015. "Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1682-1721, November.
    3. United Nations UN, 2015. "Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development," Working Papers id:7559, eSocialSciences.
    4. Fernández-Amador, Octavio & Francois, Joseph F. & Oberdabernig, Doris A. & Tomberger, Patrick, 2017. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: An Assessment Based on Production and Consumption Emission Inventories," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 269-279.
    5. Peters, Glen P., 2008. "From production-based to consumption-based national emission inventories," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 13-23, March.
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    More about this item


    CO2 accounting; CO2 consumption; Trade and CO2; Swiss carbon footprint;

    JEL classification:

    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment


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