Enforcement Costs and the Optimal Magnitude and Probability of Fines
Some of the costs of enforcing laws are fixed" - - in the sense that they do not depend on the number of individuals who commit harmful acts- -while other costs are "variable"- - they rise with the number of such individuals. This article analyzes the effects of fixed and variable enforcement costs on the optimal fine and the optimal probability of detection. It is shown that the optimal fine rises to reflect variable enforcement costs; that the optimal fine is not directly affected by fixed enforcement costs; and that the optimal probability depends on both types of enforcement costs.
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- Gary S. Becker, 1968.
"Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 76, pages 169.
- Steven Shavell, 1989.
"Specific Versus General Enforcement of Law,"
NBER Working Papers
3062, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- A. Mitchell Polinsky & Steven Shavell, 1981.
"Pigouvian Taxation with Administrative Costs,"
NBER Working Papers
0742, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- C. Eugene Steuerle, 1986. "Who Should Pay For Collecting Taxes," Books, American Enterprise Institute, number 650820, 1.
- George J. Stigler, 1974.
"The Optimum Enforcement of Laws,"
in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 55-67
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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