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Employment, Unemployment and Demand Shifts in Local Labor Markets


  • Holzer, Harry J


This paper analyzes the effects of demand shifts within and between local labor markets on unemployment and employment outcomes observed in those markets. The demand shifts are calculated from sales growth data at the firm and industry levels. The results show that, in general, employment and wage adjustments by firms are primarily driven by shifts in labor demand. Demand shifts between local areas account for large fractions of the observed variation in unemployment and employment rate levels and changes across areas. Within-area shifts cause much smaller and insignificant amounts of unemployment, and only if they are between-industry. Copyright 1991 by MIT Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Holzer, Harry J, 1991. "Employment, Unemployment and Demand Shifts in Local Labor Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(1), pages 25-32, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:73:y:1991:i:1:p:25-32

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dunne, Timothy & Roberts, Mark J & Samuelson, Larry, 1989. "Plant Turnover and Gross Employment Flows in the U.S. Manufacturing Sector," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(1), pages 48-71, January.
    2. Altonji, Joseph G & Ham, John C, 1990. "Variation in Employment Growth in Canada: The Role of External, National, Regional, and Industrial Factors," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 198-236, January.
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    4. Nickell, S.J., 1987. "Dynamic models of labour demand," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 9, pages 473-522 Elsevier.
    5. Murphy, Kevin J & Hofler, Richard A, 1984. "Determinants of Geographic Unemployment Rates: A Selectively Pooled-Simultaneous Model," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(2), pages 216-223, May.
    6. Robert E. Hall, 1970. "Why Is the Unemployment Rate So High at Full Employment?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 1(3), pages 369-410.
    7. Stephen T. Marston, 1985. "Two Views of the Geographic Distribution of Unemployment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 100(1), pages 57-79.
    8. Topel, Robert H, 1986. "Local Labor Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 111-143, June.
    9. Jonathan S. Leonard, 1986. "In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time: The Extent of Frictional and Structural Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 1979, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Davis, Steven J, 1987. "Allocative Disturbances and Specific Capital in Real Business Cycle Theories," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 326-332, May.
    11. Harry J. Holzer & Lawrence F. Katz & Alan B. Krueger, 1991. "Job Queues and Wages," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 739-768.
    12. Robert J. Gordon, 1981. "Inflation, Flexible Exchange Rates, and the Natural Rate of Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 0708, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Stanley R. Keil & Lee C. Spector, 2005. "The Impact of Wal-Mart on Employment Andwage Differentials in Alabama," Working Papers 200508, Ball State University, Department of Economics, revised Dec 2005.
    2. Maria Francesca Cracolici & Miranda Cuffaro & Peter Nijkamp, 2007. "Geographical Distribution of Unemployment: An Analysis of Provincial Differences in Italy," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(4), pages 649-670.
    3. Roberto Basile & Alessandro Girardi & Marianna Mantuano & Francesco Pastore, 2012. "Sectoral shifts, diversification and regional unemployment: evidence from local labour systems in Italy," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 525-544, November.
    4. Greenwood, Michael J. & Hunt, Gary L. & Kohli, Ulrich, 1997. "The factor-market consequences of unskilled immigration to the United States," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 1-28, March.
    5. Petri Bockerman, 2004. "Does labour market reorganization reduce unemployment?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(12), pages 745-748.
    6. Jung Hyun Choi & Richard K. Green, 2014. "Human Capital Spillovers and Local Unemployment," Working Paper 9319, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    7. Note: For best results & the figures should be printed on a non-Postscript printer. Hoynes & H., "undated". "The Employment, Earnings, and Income of Less-Skilled Workers over the Business Cycle," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1199-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    8. Long, Mark C. & Goldhaber, Dan & Huntington-Klein, Nick, 2015. "Do completed college majors respond to changes in wages?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 1-14.
    9. Luz Magdalena Salas Bahamón & Fabio Sánchez Torres, 2004. "How do the Colombian Families Respond to the Changes in the Economic Conditions?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4397, Inter-American Development Bank.
    10. James R. Hines Jr. & Hilary W. Hoynes & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Another Look at Whether a Rising Tide Lifts All Boats," NBER Working Papers 8412, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Rick Audas & Peter Dolton, 1998. "The effect of local labour market conditions on the decision to migrate among UK graduates," ERSA conference papers ersa98p245, European Regional Science Association.
    12. repec:dgr:rugsom:00c06 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Hilary Williamson Hoynes, 2000. "Local Labor Markets And Welfare Spells: Do Demand Conditions Matter?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 351-368, August.
    14. Pastore, Francesco, 2013. "Primum vivere… Industrial Change, Job Destruction and the Geographical Distribution of Unemployment," IZA Discussion Papers 7126, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Henryk Gurgul, 2007. "Stochastic input-output modeling," Managerial Economics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Management, vol. 2, pages 57-70.
    16. Glendon, Spencer P. & Vigdor, Jacob L., 2003. "Thy neighbor's jobs: geography and labor market dynamics," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 663-693, October.
    17. Fabio Sánchez & Luz Magdalena Salas & Oskar Nupia, 2003. "En Colombia 1984-2000: ¿Quién Gana Más, Quién Pierdemás?," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 002124, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
    18. Andrew Figura, 2003. "The effect of restructuring on unemployment," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-56, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    19. Elhorst, J. Paul, 2000. "The Mystery Of Regional Unemployment Differentialsa Survey Of Theoretical And Empirical Explanations," ERSA conference papers ersa00p60, European Regional Science Association.
    20. Partridge, Mark D. & Rickman, Dan S., 1998. "Regional differences in chronic long-term unemployment," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 193-215.

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