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Knowledge Organizations and Local Economic Development: The Cases of Oxford and Grenoble

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  • Helen Lawton Smith

Abstract

LAWTON SMITH H. (2003) Knowledge organizations and local economic development: the cases of Oxford and Grenoble, Reg. Studies 37, 899- 909. In Europe, European Union and individual countries' knowledge institutions are expected to stimulate regional or local economic development. This paper explores the increasingly important role of universities and national laboratories (knowledge institutions) as territorial actors. It reports on a recently completed study in which surveys were conducted with academics in scientific departments and technology transfer units in Oxford and Grenoble's universities and national laboratories. It focuses on some of the rules of the game which national innovation systems construct to institutionalize and normalize this role. It compares similar and different outcomes of common priorities. LAWTON SMITH H. (2003) Des organisations basees sur la connaissance et le de veloppement economique local: etudes de cas d'Oxford et de Grenoble, Reg. Studies 37, 899-909. En Europe, les organisations basees sur la connaissance de l'Union europeenne et des pays individuels sont censees inciter au developpement economique regional ou local. Cet article cherche a examiner le role de plus en plus important des universites et des bureaux d'etudes nationaux (organisations basees sur la connaissance) en tant qu'acteurs territoriaux. On fait un compte-rendu d'une etude recente dans laquelle on a mene des enquetes aupres des universitaires dans des departements scientifiques et des groupes recherchant le transfert de technolgie dans les universites d'Oxford et de Grenoble et dans les bureaux d'etudes nationaux. Il porte sur quelques- unes des regles du jeu que contruisent les systemes d' innovation nationaux afin d'institutionnaliser et de normaliser ce role. On compare des resultats semblables et dissemblables des priorites communes.LAWTON SMITH H. (2003) Wissenschaftliche Organisationen und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung ihres Umfeldes: die Falle Oxford und Grenoble, Reg. Studies 37, 899-909. In Europa erwartet man von wissenschaftlichen Instituten der europaischen Union und einzelner Lander, dass sie als Anreiz auf regionale und o rtliche Industrie wirken. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die an Bedeutung zunehmende Rolle von Universitatenen und staatlichen Forschungsinstituten (wissenschaftliche Institute) als Zugpferde ihres Gebietes. Er berichtet uber eine kurzlich abgeschlossene Studie, in der Untersuchungen mit Akademikern in wissenschaftlichen Instituten und Einheiten fur Technologieubertragung in den Universita ten und und staatlichen Forschungszentren von Oxford und Grenoble durchgefuhrt wurden. Dabei konzentriert er sich besonders auf bestimmte Spielregeln, welche staatliche Informaztionssysteme zwecks Institutionalisierung und Normalisierung dieser Rolle entwickeln. Der Aufsatz vergleicht ahnliche und verschiedenartige Ergebnisse gemeinsamer Prioritaten.

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  • Helen Lawton Smith, 2003. "Knowledge Organizations and Local Economic Development: The Cases of Oxford and Grenoble," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(9), pages 899-909.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:37:y:2003:i:9:p:899-909
    DOI: 10.1080/0034340032000143904
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Peter Friedrich & Chang Woon Nam, 2011. "Innovation-Oriented Land-Use Policy At The Sub-National Level: Case Study Germany," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 84, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    2. Urbano, David & Aparicio, Sebastian, 2016. "Entrepreneurship capital types and economic growth: International evidence," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 34-44.
    3. Robert Huggins & Andrew Johnston, 2009. "Knowledge Networks in an Uncompetitive Region: SME Innovation and Growth," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 227-259.
    4. Alex Burfitt & Stewart Macneill, 2008. "The Challenges of Pursuing Cluster Policy in the Congested State," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 492-505, June.
    5. Scandura, Alessandra, 2016. "University–industry collaboration and firms’ R&D effort," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 1907-1922.
    6. Martina Fromhold-Eisebith & Claudia Werker, 2013. "Universities’ functions in knowledge transfer: a geographical perspective," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 51(3), pages 621-643, December.
    7. Aparicio, Sebastian & Urbano, David & Audretsch, David, 2016. "Institutional factors, opportunity entrepreneurship and economic growth: Panel data evidence," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 45-61.
    8. Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang & Pfeil, Silko & Kaps, Katharina & Sauer, Thomas, 2011. "Regional dispersion of cooperation activities as success factor of innovation oriented SME," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2011,4, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
    9. Lawton Smith, H. & Ho, K., 2006. "Measuring the performance of Oxford University, Oxford Brookes University and the government laboratories' spin-off companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1554-1568, December.
    10. Robert Huggins & Andrew Johnston & Rebecca Steffenson, 2008. "Universities, knowledge networks and regional policy," Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Cambridge Political Economy Society, vol. 1(2), pages 321-340.
    11. Chang Woon Nam & Alina Schoenberg & Georg Wamser, 2011. "Lisbon Agenda, Regional Innovation System and the New EU Cohesion Policy," CESifo Working Paper Series 3564, CESifo Group Munich.
    12. Qiantao Zhang & Niall G. MacKenzie & Dylan Jones-Evans & Robert Huggins, 2016. "Leveraging knowledge as a competitive asset? The intensity, performance and structure of universities’ entrepreneurial knowledge exchange activities at a regional level," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 657-675, October.
    13. V. Rekers, Josephine, 2012. "The European Spallation Source (ESS)and the geography of innovation," Papers in Innovation Studies 2012/9, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    14. Bojnec, Štefan & Janeska, Verica, 2011. "Rural Labour Market Developments in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," Factor Markets Working Papers 101, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    15. Geuna, Aldo & Nesta, Lionel J.J., 2006. "University patenting and its effects on academic research: The emerging European evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 790-807, July.
    16. Cathrine Filstad & Petter Gottschalk, 2009. "How Knowledge Organizations Work: The Case of Real Estate Agencies," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 12(1), pages 88-97.
    17. Bramwell, Allison & Wolfe, David A., 2008. "Universities and regional economic development: The entrepreneurial University of Waterloo," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1175-1187, September.

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