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World Bank Trade Adjustment Loans and Export Policy Distortions


  • Mariarosaria Agostino


This work investigates whether World Bank loans fostering trade liberalization are associated with less distorted export policies, by employing some gravity model-based measures of anti-export bias, and a Herfindhal index of export revenues concentration. When accounting for non-random selection in a sample of 88 developing countries over the period 1980-2000, the receipt of trade adjustment loans seems to have reduced the policy distortion under scrutiny. Such a beneficial influence, however, vanishes when a longer time horizon is considered, casting doubts on the country ownership of waves of liberalizations supported by the Bank.

Suggested Citation

  • Mariarosaria Agostino, 2007. "World Bank Trade Adjustment Loans and Export Policy Distortions," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 143-162.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jecprf:v:10:y:2007:i:2:p:143-162 DOI: 10.1080/17487870701358873

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fethi Ogunc & Gokhan Yilmaz, 2000. "Estimating The Underground Economy In Turkey," Discussion Papers 0004, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
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    3. André Sapir, 2006. "Globalization and the Reform of European Social Models," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 369-390, June.
    4. Pissarides, Christopher A. & Weber, Guglielmo, 1989. "An expenditure-based estimate of Britain's black economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 17-32, June.
    5. Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
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