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Standardization in electronic money


  • Imho Kang
  • Jeong-yoo Kim


Electronic money services are provided by the combination of Integrated Circuit (IC) cards and terminals. The compatibility of different brands of electronic money can be enabled by firms' joint adoption of standard terminals. In this paper, we analyse the effect of achieving compatibility among different brands of electronic money. We show that, if the unit production cost of a standard terminal is not so much different from that of a non-standard one, firms' joint adoption of standard terminals will increase the total sales of IC cards and the network size of terminals, thus raising consumers' surplus and firms' profits. On the other hand, if the unit cost of a standard terminal is so high that firms are discouraged from voluntarily adopting standard ones, the government may employ subsides to enhance efficiency. However, if the duty of implementing standardization is placed solely on the firms without subsidies, all the agents, including consumers and retailers, will be left worse off.

Suggested Citation

  • Imho Kang & Jeong-yoo Kim, 2005. "Standardization in electronic money," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 447-459.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:intecj:v:19:y:2005:i:3:p:447-459
    DOI: 10.1080/10168730500199442

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gautam Gowrisankaran & Joanna Stavins, 2004. "Network Externalities and Technology Adoption: Lessons from Electronic Payments," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(2), pages 260-276, Summer.
    2. Cowan, Robin, 1991. "Tortoises and Hares: Choice among Technologies of Unknown Merit," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(407), pages 801-814, July.
    3. Stanley M. Besen & Joseph Farrell, 1994. "Choosing How to Compete: Strategies and Tactics in Standardization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(2), pages 117-131, Spring.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jeong‐Yoo Kim & Taehun Jung & Nae‐Chan Lee, 2010. "Standardization In The Wireless Internet Market: Lessons From Japan And Korea," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(5), pages 620-636, December.


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