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An analysis of the causes of recent banking crises

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  • David T. Llewellyn

Abstract

The incidence of systemic banking crises has risen over the past twenty years and the costs have been high. Although each country's experience has country-specific factors, several common elements appear in most crisis countries: (1) volatility in the macro economy; (2) the inheritance of structural weaknesses in the economy and financial system; (3) hazardous banking practices; (4) hazardous incentive structures and moral hazard within the financial system; (5) ineffective regulation; (6) weak monitoring and supervision by official agencies; (7) the absence of effective market discipline on banks, and (8) structurally unsound corporate governance mechanisms within banks and their borrowing customers. Causes of such crises are complex and a myopic focus on single factors (e. g. instability in the macro economy, weak regulation, etc.) misses the essential feature of interrelated and multidimensional causal factors. Although macro-instability has been a common feature, and may often have been the proximate cause, banking crises usually emerge because instability in the economy reveals existing weaknesses within the banking system.

Suggested Citation

  • David T. Llewellyn, 2002. "An analysis of the causes of recent banking crises," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 152-175, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:eurjfi:v:8:y:2002:i:2:p:152-175 DOI: 10.1080/13518470110071182
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Castro, Vítor, 2013. "Macroeconomic determinants of the credit risk in the banking system: The case of the GIPSI," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, pages 672-683.
    2. Kawai, Masahiro & Zhai, Fan, 2010. "Asia’s Post-Global Financial Crisis Adjustment: A Model-Based Dynamic Scenario Analysis," Asian Development Review, Asian Development Bank, vol. 27(2), pages 122-151.
    3. Sabine Herrmann & Adalbert Winkler, 2009. "Financial markets and the current account: emerging Europe versus emerging Asia," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), pages 531-550.
    4. Vogel, Ursula & Winkler, Adalbert, 2010. "Foreign banks and financial stability in emerging markets: Evidence from the global financial crisis," Frankfurt School - Working Paper Series 149, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management.
    5. Mehta, Deepshikha, 2015. "Operational Shift in Banking- A Global Study," EconStor Preprints 119529, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
    6. Abdourahmane Diaw, 2011. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on shareholder wealth: the case of European banks
      [L'effet des fusions et acquisitions sur la richesse des actionnaires: le cas des banques européennes]
      ," Post-Print hal-01184673, HAL.
    7. RACHDI, Houssem & Hakimi, Abdelaziz & Hamdi, Helmi, 2015. "Financial Liberalization, Banking Crisis and Economic Growth in MENA Region: Do Institutions Matter?," MPRA Paper 64562, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Christian Calmès & Raymond Théoret, 2011. "Bank systemic risk and the business cycle: An empirical investigation using Canadian data," RePAd Working Paper Series UQO-DSA-wp322011, Département des sciences administratives, UQO.
    9. Panagiotis Staikouras & Christos Staikouras & Maria-Eleni Agoraki, 2007. "The effect of board size and composition on European bank performance," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 1-27, February.
    10. Adina Simona Popa & Nicoleta Farcane & François Fulconis & Ovidiu Megan, 2008. "Enterprise risk management and disclosure," Analele Universitatii "Eftimie Murgu" Resita Fascicola de Inginerie, "Eftimie Murgu" University of Resita, pages 345-352.
    11. Herrmann, Sabine & Winkler, Adalbert, 2009. "Real convergence, financial markets, and the current account - Emerging Europe versus emerging Asia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 100-123, August.
    12. Saoussen Ben Gamra & Dominique Plihon, 2007. "Qualité Des Institutions, Libéralisation Et Crises Bancaires Le Cas Des Pays Émergents," CEPN Working Papers hal-00574136, HAL.
    13. Adalbert Winkler, 2010. "The Financial Crisis: A Wake-Up Call for Strengthening Regional Monitoring of Financial Markets and Regional Coordination of Financial Sector Policies?," Working Papers id:3021, eSocialSciences.
    14. Cristina Alexandrina Ștefănescu, 2014. "Transparency in European banking system – a technical and economic approach," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 17(51), pages 91-105, March.
    15. Laurent Weill & Christophe J. Godlewski, 2009. "Collateral and Adverse Selection in Transition Countries," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(1), pages 29-40, January.
    16. R. Vander Vennet & O. De Jonghe & L. Baele, 2004. "Bank risks and the business cycle," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 04/264, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    17. Christophe Godlewski, 2004. "Excess Credit Risk and Bank’s Default Risk An Application of Default Prediction’s Models to Banks from Emerging Market Economies," Finance 0409028, EconWPA.
    18. Adalbert Winkler, 2012. "The Financial Crisis: A Wake-up Call for Strengthening Regional Monitoring of Financial Markets and Regional Coordination of Financial Sector Policies?," Chapters,in: Implications of the Global Financial Crisis for Financial Reform and Regulation in Asia, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. Saoussen Ben Gamra & Dominique Plihon, 2007. "Politiques de liberalisation financiere et crises bancaires," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 112, pages 5-28.
    20. Chaibi, Hasna & Ftiti, Zied, 2015. "Credit risk determinants: Evidence from a cross-country study," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, pages 1-16.

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