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In-migrant entrepreneurship in rural England: beyond local embeddedness


  • Christos Kalantaridis
  • Zografia Bika


It is now broadly accepted in the literature that in-migrants make a disproportionately positive contribution in the creation of new ventures in rural England. However, to date, there have been precious few advances in our understanding of either the characteristics or, more importantly, the degree of embeddedness of in-migrant entrepreneurs. This paper aspires to address this gap in the literature, drawing upon the findings of an extensive fieldwork investigation in rural Cumbria.1 It is argued that the attributes of entrepreneurial individuals who are not born locally enable them to follow distinct routes to starting and/or running a business, working in contexts that allow them to break away from the confines of rurality. They appear to rely less upon the local setting for the supply of materials and capital, as well as a market for their products/services and to have closer relationships with national and international sources of information than their locally-born counterparts. Thus, in-migrant entrepreneurs emerge as a key instrument in enhancing the integration of rural economies in the national and global markets as well as diminishing the strength of local ties. Weak local ties also mean that growing in-migrant entrepreneurship may be linked with the demise of rural localities as integrated entities.

Suggested Citation

  • Christos Kalantaridis & Zografia Bika, 2006. "In-migrant entrepreneurship in rural England: beyond local embeddedness," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 109-131, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:entreg:v:18:y:2006:i:2:p:109-131 DOI: 10.1080/08985620500510174

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Udo Brixy & Michael Niese, 2003. "The determinants of regional differences in new firm formation in West-Germany," ERSA conference papers ersa03p268, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Peter J. Kuhn & Herb J. Schuetze, 2001. "Self-employment dynamics and self-employment trends: a study of Canadian men and women, 1982-1998," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(3), pages 760-784, August.
    3. Schmitz, James A, Jr, 1989. "Imitation, Entrepreneurship, and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 721-739, June.
    4. Iyigun, Murat F & Owen, Ann L, 1998. "Risk, Entrepreneurship, and Human-Capital Accumulation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 454-457, May.
    5. Jock Collins, 2003. "Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship: policy responses to immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 137-149, January.
    6. Davis, Steven J & Haltiwanger, John & Schuh, Scott, 1996. "Small Business and Job Creation: Dissecting the Myth and Reassessing the Facts," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 297-315, August.
    7. Dan Johansson, 2004. "Is small beautiful? The case of the Swedish IT industry," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 271-287, July.
    8. Schultz, T Paul, 1990. "Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-488, April.
    9. Blau, David M, 1987. "A Time-Series Analysis of Self-employment in the United State," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(3), pages 445-467, June.
    10. Carree, Martin & Klomp, Luuk, 1996. "Small Business and Job Creation: A Comment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 317-322, August.
    11. McDougall, Patricia P. & Robinson, Richard Jr. & DeNisi, Angelo S., 1992. "Modeling new venture performance: An analysis of new venture strategy, industry structure, and venture origin," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 267-289, July.
    12. Monder Ram & David Smallbone, 2003. "Policies to support ethnic minority enterprise: the English experience," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 151-166, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hannu Tervo & Hannu Niittykangas, 2011. "Self-employment transitions at older ages in different local labor markets," ERSA conference papers ersa11p764, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Nijkamp, P. & Stough, R. & Sahin, M., 2009. "Impact of social and human capital on business performance of migrant entrepreneurs - a comparative dutch-us study," Serie Research Memoranda 0017, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    3. Gulumser, A.A. & Baycan Levent, T. & Nijkamp, P. & Poot, H.J., 2012. "The role of local and newcomer entrepreneurs in rural development: A comparative meta-analytic study," Serie Research Memoranda 0001, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    4. Thompson Piers & Jones-Evans Dylan & Kwong Caleb, 2012. "Entrepreneurship in Deprived Urban Communities: The Case of Wales," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-33, January.
    5. Hannu Tervo, 2014. "Who turns to entrepreneurship later in life? - Push and pull in Finnish rural and urban areas," ERSA conference papers ersa14p236, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Aliye Ahu Akgün & Peter Nijkamp & Tüzin Baycan & Martijn Brons, 2010. "Embeddedness Of Entrepreneurs In Rural Areas: A Comparative Rough Set Data Analysis," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 101(5), pages 538-553, December.
    7. repec:eee:touman:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:338-350 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. McKeever, Edward & Jack, Sarah & Anderson, Alistair, 2015. "Embedded entrepreneurship in the creative re-construction of place," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 50-65.

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