Urban-Rural Differences in Costs of Living and Their Impact on Poverty Measures
This note demonstrates empirically the importance of urban-rural price differences and inflation figures in poverty analysis. Using data from the National Socio-Economic Survey (Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional, widely known as Susenas), it shows that the urban-rural food price differential during the period 1987-96 was 13-16%, not 28-52% as impli by the 'official' food poverty lines. The urban-rural poverty comparisons and the components of change in simulated poverty estimates presented here therefore differ from those based on the 'official' figures. They indicate that migration to urban areas between 1987 and 1996 accounts for a significant part of the observed decline in poverty. The paper concludes that it is essential to use accurate urban-rural cost of living differences in deriving aggregate, urban and rural poverty estimates.
Volume (Year): 35 (1999)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
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- Ravallion, Martin & van de Walle, Dominique, 1989. "Cost of living differences between urban and rural areas in Indonesia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 341, The World Bank.
- Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
- Ravallion, Martin & Huppi, Monika, 1991. "Measuring Changes in Poverty: A Methodological Case Study of Indonesia during an Adjustment Period," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 5(1), pages 57-82, January.
- Frankenberg, E. & Thomas, D. & Beegle, K., 1999.
"The Real Costs of Indonesia's Economic Crisis: Preliminary Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Surveys,"
99-04, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
- Elizabeth Frankenberg & Duncan Thomas & Kathleen Beegle, 1999. "The Real Costs of Indonesian Economic Crisis: Preliminary Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Surveys," Working Papers 99-04, RAND Corporation.
- Arsenio M. Balisacan, 2001. "Poverty in the Philippines : An Update and Reexamination," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 38(1), pages 15-52, June.
- Ravallion, M., 1992. "Poverty Comparisons - A Guide to Concepts and Methods," Papers 88, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
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