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Attendance and pricing at sporting events: empirical results from Granger Causality Tests for the Melbourne Cup


  • Paresh Kumar Narayan
  • Russell Smyth


This study applies Granger causality tests to examine the relationship between attendance, admission prices and real income at the Melbourne Cup, which is Australia's premier horseracing event and one of the world's leading handicap races. The motivation for the paper is that while market demand suggests that causation should run from admission price to attendance, it is equally plausible that sporting authorities could alter admission prices in response to a change in demand reflected in attendance. The main findings are that in the short-run there is unidirectional Granger causality running from income to attendance, attendance to admission price and income to admission price, while in the long run both admission price and income Granger cause attendance.

Suggested Citation

  • Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2003. "Attendance and pricing at sporting events: empirical results from Granger Causality Tests for the Melbourne Cup," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(15), pages 1649-1657.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:35:y:2003:i:15:p:1649-1657
    DOI: 10.1080/0003684032000133223

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pesaran, M.H. & Shin, Y., 1995. "An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Modelling Approach to Cointegration Analysis," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9514, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
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    5. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    6. Tuck Cheong Tang & Mahendhiran Nair, 2002. "A cointegration analysis of Malaysian import demand function: reassessment from the bounds test," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 293-296.
    7. Charalambos Pattichis, 1999. "Price and income elasticities of disaggregated import demand: results from UECMs and an application," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(9), pages 1061-1071.
    8. S. M. Dobson & J. A. Goddard, 1998. "Performance and revenue in professional league football: evidence from Granger causality tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(12), pages 1641-1651.
    9. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    10. Borland, Jeff, 1987. "The Demand for Australian Rules Football," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 63(182), pages 220-230, September.
    11. Tuck Cheong Tang, 2002. "Demand for M3 and expenditure components in Malaysia: assessment from bounds testing approach," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(11), pages 721-725.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chew Ging LEE, 2010. "The Nexus of Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Income: Evidence from Singapore," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 10(1).
    2. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2008. "Forecasting Fiji's exports and imports, 2003-2020," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(12), pages 1005-1016, October.
    3. Ansgar Belke & Thorsten Polleit, 2006. "Monetary policy and dividend growth in Germany: long-run structural modelling versus bounds testing approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(12), pages 1409-1423.
    4. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema, 2005. "Estimating income and price elasticities of imports for Fiji in a cointegration framework," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 423-438, May.
    5. Makin, Anthony J. & Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 2008. "Have US external imbalances been determined at home or abroad?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 520-531, May.
    6. Andrew C. Worthington, 2007. "National Exuberance: A Note On The Melbourne Cup Effect In Australian Stock Returns," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 26(2), pages 170-179, June.

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