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Why do banks ask for collateral in SME lending?

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  • R�gis Blazy
  • Laurent Weill

Abstract

Following the common use of collateral in SME lending, this article aims attesting empirically the three major theoretical reasons for using collateral: reduction of loan loss in the event of default, adverse selection and moral hazard. We use a unique dataset of 735 bank loans granted to French distressed SMEs, which contains full information on the type and value of collateral, and the cause of firm default. We observe that collateral contributes to reduce loan loss in the event of default, with differences among types of collateral in terms of the recovered value for a given initial value. However, we tend to show that collateral does not solve adverse selection problems, as there is a positive relationship between collateral and risk premium, nor moral hazard, as secured loans are not associated with a lower probability of moral hazard behaviour. These findings are observed for all types of collateral. Therefore, our work suggests that information asymmetries are not of prime importance in the decision of the bank to secure loans to SMEs. The reduction of the loan loss and the observed-risk hypothesis may explain the use of collateral.

Suggested Citation

  • R�gis Blazy & Laurent Weill, 2013. "Why do banks ask for collateral in SME lending?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(13), pages 1109-1122, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apfiec:v:23:y:2013:i:13:p:1109-1122
    DOI: 10.1080/09603107.2013.795272
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Inderst, Roman & Mueller, Holger M., 2007. "A lender-based theory of collateral," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 826-859, June.
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    4. Berger, Allen N. & Espinosa-Vega, Marco A. & Frame, W. Scott & Miller, Nathan H., 2011. "Why do borrowers pledge collateral? New empirical evidence on the role of asymmetric information," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 55-70, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Anabela Marques Santos & Michele Cincera, 2018. "Sharing The Risk Of Innovative Investment: Assessing The Effect Of A New European Financing Instrument," iCite Working Papers 2018-029, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. Bin Liu & Charles Cullinan & Junrui Zhang & Fangjun Wang, 2016. "Loan guarantees and the cost of debt: evidence from China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(38), pages 3626-3643, August.
    3. Blazy, Régis & Letaief, Aziza, 2017. "When secured and unsecured creditors recover the same: The emblematic case of the Tunisian corporate bankruptcies," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 19-41.
    4. Anabela Santos & Michele Cincera, 2022. "Determinants of financing constraints," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(3), pages 1427-1439, March.
    5. Ashiqur Rahman & Jaroslav Belas & Tomas Kliestik & Ladislav Tyll, 2017. "Collateral requirements for SME loans: empirical evidence from the Visegrad countries," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 650-675, July.
    6. Rahman Ashiqur & Belas Jaroslav & Rahman M. Twyeafur, 2017. "Determinants of SME Finance: Evidence from Three Central European Countries," Review of Economic Perspectives, Sciendo, vol. 17(3), pages 263-285, September.
    7. Amin Karimu & Samuel Salia & Javed G. Hussain & Ishmael Tingbani, 2021. "Are competitive microfinance services worth regulating? Evidence from microfinance institutions in Sub‐Saharan Africa," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(1), pages 476-492, January.
    8. Fidrmuc, Jarko & Hainz, Christa, 2010. "Default rates in the loan market for SMEs: Evidence from Slovakia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 133-147, June.
    9. Anabela Marques Santos & Michele Cincera, 2021. "Determinants of financing constraints," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/319161, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    10. Laurent Weill & Christophe J. Godlewski, 2009. "Collateral and Adverse Selection in Transition Countries," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(1), pages 29-40, January.
    11. Kautonen, Teemu & Fredriksson, Antti & Minniti, Maria & Moro, Andrea, 2020. "Trust-based banking and SMEs’ access to credit," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 14(C).
    12. Naradda Gamage, Sisira Kumara & Ekanayake, EMS & Abeyrathne, GAKNJ & Prasanna, RPIR & Jayasundara, JMSB & Rajapakshe, PSK, 2019. "Global Challenges and Survival Strategies of the SMEs in the Era of Economic Globalization: A Systematic Review," MPRA Paper 98419, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Mariarosaria Agostino & Francesco Trivieri, 2017. "Collateral in lending relationships. A study on European SMEs microdata," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 339-356, May.

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