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The Effects of Collateral on Firm Performance

Listed author(s):
  • Ono, Arito
  • Sakai, Koji
  • Uesugi, Iichiro

This paper examines how collateral and personal guarantees affect firms’ ex-post performance employing a propensity score matching estimation approach. Based on a unique firm-level panel data set of more than 500 small-and-medium-sized borrower firms in Japan, we find that borrowers that provide collateral to lenders experience larger increases in profitability and reductions in riskiness than borrowers that do not. The main channel through which the borrower enhances its profitability is cost-cutting restructuring. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that collateral reduces moral hazard by providing borrowers with an incentive to enhance their creditworthiness. We find little evidence that improvements in collateralized firms’ performance are driven by the intensified monitoring on the part of lenders, or by borrowing firms’ access to larger amounts of credit.

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File URL: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/18925/1/ifn_wp005.pdf
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Paper provided by Center for Interfirm Network, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Working Paper Series with number 5.

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Length: 53 p.
Date of creation: Feb 2011
Handle: RePEc:hit:cinwps:5
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  1. Longhofer, Stanley D. & Santos, Joao A. C., 2000. "The Importance of Bank Seniority for Relationship Lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 57-89, January.
  2. ONO Arito & UESUGI Iichiro & YASUDA Yukihiro, 2011. "Are Lending Relationships Beneficial or Harmful for Public Credit Guarantees? Evidence from Japan's Emergency Credit Guarantee Program," Discussion papers 11035, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  3. Ono, Arito & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2008. "The Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," PIE/CIS Discussion Paper 371, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  4. Manove, Michael & Padilla, A Jorge & Pagano, Marco, 2001. "Collateral versus Project Screening: A Model of Lazy Banks," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 726-744, Winter.
  5. Gabriel Jiménez & Vicente Salas & Jesús Saurina, 2004. "Determinants of collateral," Working Papers 0420, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  6. Allen N. Berger & W. Scott Frame & Vasso P. Ioannidou, 2010. "Tests of ex ante versus ex post theories of collateral using private and public information," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2010-06, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  7. Allen N. Berger & W. Scott Frame & Vasso P. Ioannidou, 2011. "Reexamining the empirical relation between loan risk and collateral: the roles of collateral characteristics and types," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2011-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  8. Bester, Helmut, 1985. "Screening vs. Rationing in Credit Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 850-855, September.
  9. Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V & Udell, Gregory F, 1991. "Secured Lending and Default Risk: Equilibrium Analysis, Policy Implications and Empirical Results," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 458-472, May.
  10. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," NBER Working Papers 6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
  12. Allen N. Berger & Marco A. Espinosa-Vega & W. Scott Frame & Nathan H. Miller, 2007. "Why do borrowers pledge collateral? new empirical evidence on the role of asymmetric information," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2006-29, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  13. Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2004. "The Role of Guarantees in Bank Lending," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp04021, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
  14. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 1990. "Collateral, loan quality and bank risk," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 21-42, January.
  15. Rajan, Raghuram & Winton, Andrew, 1995. " Covenants and Collateral as Incentives to Monitor," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1113-1146, September.
  16. Stulz, ReneM. & Johnson, Herb, 1985. "An analysis of secured debt," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 501-521, December.
  17. Hernán Ortiz-Molina & María Penas, 2008. "Lending to small businesses: the role of loan maturity in addressing information problems," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 361-383, April.
  18. Gabriel Jiménez & Jesús Saurina, 2004. "Collateral, type of lender and relationship banking as determinants of credit risk," Working Papers 0414, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
  19. Brick, Ivan E. & Palia, Darius, 2007. "Evidence of jointness in the terms of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 452-476, July.
  20. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
  21. Caliendo, Marco & Kopeinig, Sabine, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," IZA Discussion Papers 1588, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  22. Uesugi, Iichiro & Sakai, Koji & Yamashiro, Guy M., 2008. "The Effectiveness of Public Credit Guarantees in the Japanese Loan Market," PIE/CIS Discussion Paper 400, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  23. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1995. "Relationship Lending and Lines of Credit in Small Firm Finance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(3), pages 351-381, July.
  24. Voordeckers, Wim & Steijvers, Tensie, 2006. "Business collateral and personal commitments in SME lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 3067-3086, November.
  25. Orgler, Yair E, 1970. "A Credit Scoring Model for Commercial Loans," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 2(4), pages 435-445, November.
  26. Besanko, David & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. "Collateral and Rationing: Sorting Equilibria in Monopolistic and Competitive Credit Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 28(3), pages 671-689, October.
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