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Optimal dimension reduction for high-dimensional and functional time series


  • Marc Hallin

    () (Université libre de Bruxelles
    Université libre de Bruxelles)

  • Siegfried Hörmann

    (Université libre de Bruxelles
    Université libre de Bruxelles
    Graz University of Technology)

  • Marco Lippi

    (Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance)


Dimension reduction techniques are at the core of the statistical analysis of high-dimensional and functional observations. Whether the data are vector- or function-valued, principal component techniques, in this context, play a central role. The success of principal components in the dimension reduction problem is explained by the fact that, for any $$K\le p$$ K ≤ p , the K first coefficients in the expansion of a p-dimensional random vector $$\mathbf{X}$$ X in terms of its principal components is providing the best linear K-dimensional summary of $$\mathbf X$$ X in the mean square sense. The same property holds true for a random function and its functional principal component expansion. This optimality feature, however, no longer holds true in a time series context: principal components and functional principal components, when the observations are serially dependent, are losing their optimal dimension reduction property to the so-called dynamic principal components introduced by Brillinger in 1981 in the vector case and, in the functional case, their functional extension proposed by Hörmann, Kidziński and Hallin in 2015.

Suggested Citation

  • Marc Hallin & Siegfried Hörmann & Marco Lippi, 2018. "Optimal dimension reduction for high-dimensional and functional time series," Statistical Inference for Stochastic Processes, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 385-398, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:sistpr:v:21:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11203-018-9172-1
    DOI: 10.1007/s11203-018-9172-1

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2005. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: One-Sided Estimation and Forecasting," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 830-840, September.
    2. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 2001. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: Representation Theory," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(6), pages 1113-1141, December.
    3. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2017. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor space: Asymptotic analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 199(1), pages 74-92.
    4. Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco, 2013. "Factor models in high-dimensional time series—A time-domain approach," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 123(7), pages 2678-2695.
    5. Siegfried Hörmann & Łukasz Kidziński & Marc Hallin, 2015. "Dynamic functional principal components," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 77(2), pages 319-348, March.
    6. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Zaffaroni, Paolo, 2015. "Dynamic factor models with infinite-dimensional factor spaces: One-sided representations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(2), pages 359-371.
    7. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2000. "The Generalized Dynamic-Factor Model: Identification And Estimation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 540-554, November.
    8. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 2011. "The general dynamic factor model: One-sided representation results," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 23-28, July.
    9. Daniel Peña & Victor J. Yohai, 2016. "Generalized Dynamic Principal Components," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 111(515), pages 1121-1131, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Marc Hallin & Luis K. Hotta & João H. G Mazzeu & Carlos Cesar Trucios-Maza & Pedro L. Valls Pereira & Mauricio Zevallos, 2019. "Forecasting Conditional Covariance Matrices in High-Dimensional Time Series: a General Dynamic Factor Approach," Working Papers ECARES 2019-14, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.


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