IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Scientific publications from non-academic sectors and their impact


  • Concepta McManus

    (Universidade de Brasília)

  • Abilio Afonso Baeta Neves

    Paschoal Senise Chair, Postgraduate Prorectorate)

  • Alvaro Toubes Prata

    (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina)


Universities are not the only institutions that publish scientific papers. In this study we evaluate the production and impact of scientific publications from non-academic and industry sources. Data on countries, including businesses, was collected from Incites® (Clarivate Analytics) including the number of Web of Science Documents, times cited, documents in top 10 and 1% % and their percentages, Open Access (%OA), % DOAJ, % of documents per quartile (%Q1, %Q2, %Q3, %Q4), (Category Normalised Citation Impact) CNCI, Citation Impact, Average Percentile, Impact Relative to the World, as well as percentages of highly cited and hot papers. Supplementary data on countries such as including citing patents and media exposure, was acquired from SciVal®. The number of researchers per million inhabitants, GERD (Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development) per capita and per GDP (Gross Domestic Product), % government financing and % business financing and to look at sectors of the economy. Statistical analyses included correlation (PROC CORR), factorial (PROC FACTOR), cluster (PROC CLUSTER & FASTCLUS) and multivariate regression (PROC REG) using SAS®v9.4 (Statistical Analysis System Institute, Cary, North Carolina). Clusters were formed based on Category Normalised Citation Index. Impact varied by knowledge area. Comparing academic and business fields, we found that business papers had higher impact and higher prominence that academic papers, and were cited more intensively by patents. Most counties that had businesses with high impact were European, but also Australian, American and Canadian.

Suggested Citation

  • Concepta McManus & Abilio Afonso Baeta Neves & Alvaro Toubes Prata, 2021. "Scientific publications from non-academic sectors and their impact," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 126(11), pages 8887-8911, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:scient:v:126:y:2021:i:11:d:10.1007_s11192-021-04159-8
    DOI: 10.1007/s11192-021-04159-8

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Robert J. Gordon, 2016. "The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 10544.
    2. Hsu, David W.L. & Shen, Yung-Chi & Yuan, Benjamin J.C. & Chou, Chiyan James, 2015. "Toward successful commercialization of university technology: Performance drivers of university technology transfer in Taiwan," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 25-39.
    3. Batara Surya & Firman Menne & Hernita Sabhan & Seri Suriani & Herminawaty Abubakar & Muhammad Idris, 2021. "Economic Growth, Increasing Productivity of SMEs, and Open Innovation," JOItmC, MDPI, vol. 7(1), pages 1-37, January.
    4. Eric J. Bartelsman & Martin Falk & Eva Hagsten & Michael Polder, 2019. "Productivity, technological innovations and broadband connectivity: firm-level evidence for ten European countries," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 9(1), pages 25-48, March.
    5. DiMasi, Joseph A. & Grabowski, Henry G. & Hansen, Ronald W., 2016. "Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: New estimates of R&D costs," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 20-33.
    6. Archibugi, Daniele & Filippetti, Andrea, 2018. "The retreat of public research and its adverse consequences on innovation," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 97-111.
    7. Pei-Shan Chi & Juan Gorraiz & Wolfgang Glänzel, 2019. "Comparing capture, usage and citation indicators: an altmetric analysis of journal papers in chemistry disciplines," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 120(3), pages 1461-1473, September.
    8. Pradhan, Rudra P. & Arvin, Mak B. & Nair, Mahendhiran & Bennett, Sara E., 2020. "The dynamics among entrepreneurship, innovation, and economic growth in the Eurozone countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 1106-1122.
    9. repec:oup:scippl:v:45:y:2018:i:3:p:392-403. is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Marina Papanastassiou & Robert Pearce & Antonello Zanfei, 2020. "Changing perspectives on the internationalization of R&D and innovation by multinational enterprises: A review of the literature," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 51(4), pages 623-664, June.
    11. Slavova, Kremena & Jong, Simcha, 2021. "University alliances and firm exploratory innovation: Evidence from therapeutic product development," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 107(C).
    12. Solon Moreira & Thiago J Soares, 2020. "Academic spill-ins or spill-outs? Examining knowledge spillovers of university patents," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(5), pages 1145-1165.
    13. Temel, Serdal & Dabić, Marina & Murat Ar, Ilker & Howells, Jeremy & Ali Mert, & Yesilay, Rustem Baris, 2021. "Exploring the relationship between university innovation intermediaries and patenting performance," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    14. Gabjin Oh & Ho-Yong Kim & Ayoung Park, 2017. "Analysis of technological innovation based on citation information," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 51(3), pages 1065-1091, May.
    15. Emanuela Reale & Dragana Avramov & Kubra Canhial & Claire Donovan & Ramon Flecha & Poul Holm & Charles Larkin & Benedetto Lepori & Judith Mosoni-Fried & Esther Oliver & Emilia Primeri & Lidia Puigvert, 2018. "A review of literature on evaluating the scientific, social and political impact of social sciences and humanities research," Research Evaluation, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(4), pages 298-308.
    16. Fabiano, Gianluca & Marcellusi, Andrea & Favato, Giampiero, 2021. "R versus D, from knowledge creation to value appropriation: Ownership of patents filed by European biotechnology founders," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 108(C).
    17. Arkadiusz Michał Kowalski & Jakub Rybacki, 2021. "Moderate Innovator Trap—Does the Convergence of Innovation Performance Occur in the World Economy?," Economies, MDPI, vol. 9(1), pages 1-12, February.
    18. Andrea Filippetti & Maria Savona, 2017. "University–industry linkages and academic engagements: individual behaviours and firms’ barriers. Introduction to the special section," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 719-729, August.
    19. Duncan A Thomas & Maria Nedeva & Mayra M Tirado & Merle Jacob, 2020. "Changing research on research evaluation: A critical literature review to revisit the agenda," Research Evaluation, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 275-288.
    20. Ziaul Haque Munim & Mariia Dushenko & Veronica Jaramillo Jimenez & Mohammad Hassan Shakil & Marius Imset, 2020. "Big data and artificial intelligence in the maritime industry: a bibliometric review and future research directions," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(5), pages 577-597, July.
    21. Rene Belderbos & Vincent Van Roy & Bart Leten & Bart Thijs, 2014. "Academic Research Strengths and Multinational Firms' Foreign R&D Location Decisions: Evidence from R&D Investments in European Regions," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 46(4), pages 920-942, April.
    22. Fumio Teramae & Tomohiro Makino & Yeongjoo Lim & Shintaro Sengoku & Kota Kodama, 2020. "International Strategy for Sustainable Growth in Multinational Pharmaceutical Companies," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-14, January.
    23. Ashish Arora & Sharon Belenzon & Andrea Patacconi, 2018. "The decline of science in corporate R&D," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 3-32, January.
    24. Concepta McManus & Abilio Afonso Baeta Neves, 2021. "Funding research in Brazil," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 126(1), pages 801-823, January.
    25. Concepta McManus & Abilio Afonso Baeta Neves & Andrea Queiroz Maranhão & Antonio Gomes Souza Filho & Jaime Martins Santana, 2020. "International collaboration in Brazilian science: financing and impact," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 125(3), pages 2745-2772, December.
    26. Martina Halaskova & Beata Gavurova & Kristina Kocisova, 2020. "Research and Development Efficiency in Public and Private Sectors: An Empirical Analysis of EU Countries by Using DEA Methodology," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(17), pages 1-22, August.
    27. Shuo Xu & Liyuan Hao & Xin An & Hongshen Pang & Ting Li, 2020. "Review on emerging research topics with key-route main path analysis," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 122(1), pages 607-624, January.
    28. Galvin, Peter & Burton, Nicholas & Singh, Prakash J. & Sarpong, David & Bach, Norbert & Teo, Stephen, 2020. "Network rivalry, Competition and Innovation," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
    29. Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos & Sharma, Abhijit, 2016. "Intellectual property rights and innovation: A panel analysis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 70-72.
    30. Koen Jonkers & Frédérique Sachwald, 2018. "The dual impact of ‘excellent’ research on science and innovation: the case of Europe," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(2), pages 159-174.
    31. Manuel Trajtenberg & Rebecca Henderson & Adam Jaffe, 1997. "University Versus Corporate Patents: A Window On The Basicness Of Invention," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 19-50.
    32. Hsu, David H. & Hsu, Po-Hsuan & Zhao, Qifeng, 2021. "Rich on paper? Chinese firms’ academic publications, patents, and market value," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(9).
    33. Diana Hicks & Paul Wouters & Ludo Waltman & Sarah de Rijcke & Ismael Rafols, 2015. "Bibliometrics: The Leiden Manifesto for research metrics," Nature, Nature, vol. 520(7548), pages 429-431, April.
    34. Mario Maggioni & Teodora Uberti, 2011. "Networks and geography in the economics of knowledge flows," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 45(5), pages 1031-1051, August.
    35. Nivedita Mukherji & Jonathan Silberman, 2021. "Knowledge flows between universities and industry: the impact of distance, technological compatibility, and the ability to diffuse knowledge," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 223-257, February.
    36. Gretsch, Oliver & Salzmann, Edmund & Kock, Alexander, 2019. "University-Industry Collaboration and Front-end Success: The Moderating Effects of Innovativeness and Parallel Cross-firm Collaboration," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 118967, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    37. Adam Whittle & Dieter F. Kogler, 2020. "Related to what? Reviewing the literature on technological relatedness: Where we are now and where can we go?," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 99(1), pages 97-113, February.
    38. Albert Banal-Estañol & Inés Macho-Stadler & David Pérez-Castrillo, 2013. "Research Output From University–Industry Collaborative Projects," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 27(1), pages 71-81, February.
    39. JANE BOURKE & FRANK CROWLEY & JUSTIN DORAN & ANTHONY McDONNELL, 2021. "An Analysis Of Management Practices Across Firm Ownership: The Case Of Standalone Domestic Firms, Domestic Groups And Multinational Enterprises," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 25(03), pages 1-25, April.
    40. John H. Dunning & Sarianna M. Lundan, 2009. "The Internationalization of Corporate R&D: A Review of the Evidence and Some Policy Implications for Home Countries1," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 26(1‐2), pages 13-33, January.
    41. Mario Maggioni & Teodora Uberti, 2011. "Networks and geography in the economics of knowledge flows," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-1066, August.
    42. Guiyang Zhang & Chaoying Tang, 2018. "How R&D partner diversity influences innovation performance: an empirical study in the nano-biopharmaceutical field," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 116(3), pages 1487-1512, September.
    43. Manajit Chakraborty & Maksym Byshkin & Fabio Crestani, 2020. "Patent citation network analysis: A perspective from descriptive statistics and ERGMs," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(12), pages 1-28, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Liu, Ziyu & Du, Yushen, 2022. "Open knowledge disclosure and technical standard competition in transition economies: A legitimacy perspective," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    2. Rotolo, Daniele & Camerani, Roberto & Grassano, Nicola & Martin, Ben R., 2022. "Why do firms publish? A systematic literature review and a conceptual framework," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(10).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Archibugi, Daniele & Filippetti, Andrea, 2018. "The retreat of public research and its adverse consequences on innovation," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 97-111.
    2. Gabjin Oh & Ho-Yong Kim & Ayoung Park, 2017. "Analysis of technological innovation based on citation information," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 51(3), pages 1065-1091, May.
    3. Alessandra Scandura & Simona Iammarino, 2022. "Academic engagement with industry: the role of research quality and experience," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1000-1036, August.
    4. Loles Añón Higón & Alfonso Díez-Minguela, 2021. "Location, Location, Location: Do Universities Matter for Foreign R&D?," Working Papers 2109, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    5. Giuseppe Calignano & Rune Dahl Fitjar, 2017. "Strengthening relationships in clusters: How effective is an indirect policy measure carried out in a peripheral technology district?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 59(1), pages 139-169, July.
    6. Di Cagno, Daniela & Fabrizi, Andrea & Meliciani, Valentina & Wanzenböck, Iris, 2016. "The impact of relational spillovers from joint research projects on knowledge creation across European regions," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 83-94.
    7. Gold, E. Richard, 2021. "The fall of the innovation empire and its possible rise through open science," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(5).
    8. Roberto Camerani & Daniele Rotolo & Nicola Grassano, 2018. "Do Firms Publish? A Multi-Sectoral Analysis," SPRU Working Paper Series 2018-21, SPRU - Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex Business School.
    9. Ashish Arora & Sharon Belenzon & Andrea Patacconi & Jungkyu Suh, 2020. "The Changing Structure of American Innovation: Some Cautionary Remarks for Economic Growth," Innovation Policy and the Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 39-93.
    10. Lin, Jun-You, 2017. "Balancing industry collaboration and academic innovation: The contingent role of collaboration-specific attributes," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 216-228.
    11. Georg Licht & Bettina Peters & Christian Köhler & Franz Schwiebacher, 2014. "The Potential Contribution of Innovation Systems to Socio-Ecological Transition. WWWforEurope Deliverable No. 4," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 47502.
    12. Goldin, Ian & Koutroumpis, Pantelis & Lafond, François & Winkler, Julian, 2020. "Why is productivity slowing down?," MPRA Paper 99172, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Ilwon Seo, 2019. "Regions’ Technology Brokerage Patterns and Dynamics for Regional Development," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(9), pages 1-15, May.
    14. Isabel Cavalli & Charlie Joyez, 2021. "The Dynamics of French Universities in Patent Collaboration Networks," GREDEG Working Papers 2021-38, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    15. Ardito, Lorenzo & Natalicchio, Angelo & Appio, Francesco Paolo & Messeni Petruzzelli, Antonio, 2021. "The role of scientific knowledge within inventing teams and the moderating effects of team internationalization and team experience: Empirical tests into the aerospace sector," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 701-710.
    16. Coad, Alex & Vezzani, Antonio, 2019. "Three cheers for industry: Is manufacturing linked to R&D, exports, and productivity growth?," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 14-25.
    17. Joshua L. Krieger & Danielle Li & Dimitris Papanikolaou, 2018. "Missing Novelty in Drug Development," NBER Working Papers 24595, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Jorge Vieira & Rui Frade & Raquel Ascenso & Filipa Martinho & Domingos Martinho, 2021. "Determinants of Internationalization as Levers for Sustainability: A Study of the Portuguese Pharmaceutical Sector," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(17), pages 1-16, August.
    19. Jorrit P Smit & Laurens K Hessels, 2021. "The production of scientific and societal value in research evaluation: a review of societal impact assessment methods [Systems Thinking, Knowledge and Action: Towards Better Models and Methods]," Research Evaluation, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(3), pages 323-335.
    20. Daniele Archibugi & Bengt-Ã…ke Lundvall & Edward Steinmueller, 2016. "(English) Science Fiction and Economic Cycles. A Dialogue on Technological Expectations (Italiano) Fantascienza e cicli economici. Un dialogo sulle aspettative tecnologiche," IRPPS Working Papers 90:2016, National Research Council, Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:scient:v:126:y:2021:i:11:d:10.1007_s11192-021-04159-8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.