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European economies in terms of energy dependence


  • Anna Bluszcz

    () (Silesian University of Technology)


The sustainable development and energy security are currently the priority challenges for the European Union countries. The sustainable and stable development of European economies is closely dependent on the stable access to energy resources. The constant increase of the demand for electricity requires long-term planning of the common European policy. The aim of the article is to analyse the fuel and energy resources situation of the member states with regard to their energy balances and with the determination of their import dependence in relation to fossil fuels, such as: coal, oil and natural gas. Based on the collected statistical data the analysis of clusters was presented in order to separate homogenous subsets, that is groups of the European Union Member States. The squared Euclidean distance has been adopted as the measure of similarities of the member states in the clusters, and the k-means algorithm has been used as the method of grouping. As a result of the analysis seven clusters were selected-groups of homogenous countries in terms of the import dependence due to the major energy resources (oil, natural gas and coal). The results of the paper can constitute bases for shaping the appropriate long-term common energy policy for the listed potential groups of countries. Statistical data were collected based on the Eurostat publication.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Bluszcz, 2017. "European economies in terms of energy dependence," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 1531-1548, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:qualqt:v:51:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11135-016-0350-1
    DOI: 10.1007/s11135-016-0350-1

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    Cited by:

    1. Izabela Jonek-Kowalska, 2018. "Method for Assessing the Development of Underground Hard Coal Mines on a Regional Basis: The Concept of Measurement and Research Results," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(6), pages 1-23, May.
    2. Jeyhun I. Mikayilov & Shahriyar Mukhtarov & Hasan Dinçer & Serhat Yüksel & Rıdvan Aydın, 2020. "Elasticity Analysis of Fossil Energy Sources for Sustainable Economies: A Case of Gasoline Consumption in Turkey," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(3), pages 1-15, February.
    3. Anna Manowska & Andrzej Nowrot, 2019. "The Importance of Heat Emission Caused by Global Energy Production in Terms of Climate Impact," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(16), pages 1-12, August.
    4. Jonek-Kowalska, Izabela, 2019. "Consolidation as a risk management method in the lifecycle of a mining company: A novel methodological approach and evidence from the coal industry in Poland," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 169-177.
    5. Jonek-Kowalska, Izabela & Nawrocki, Tomasz L., 2019. "Holistic fuzzy evaluation of operational risk in polish mining enterprises in a long-term and sectoral research perspective," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-1.
    6. Jonek-Kowalska, Izabela, 2019. "Efficiency of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) systems. Comparative analysis in the fuel sector and energy sector on the basis of Central-European companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 405-415.
    7. Liu, Yanxin & Li, Huajiao & Guan, Jianhe & Feng, Sida & Guo, Sui, 2019. "The impact of Chinese steel product prices based on the midstream industry chain," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-1.


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