IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/joerap/v3y2020i4d10.1007_s41996-020-00068-9.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19: Evidence from Six Large Cities

Author

Listed:
  • Joseph Benitez

    () (University of Kentucky)

  • Charles Courtemanche

    () (University of Kentucky)

  • Aaron Yelowitz

    () (University of Kentucky)

Abstract

As of June 2020, the coronavirus pandemic has led to more than 2.3 million confirmed infections and 121 thousand fatalities in the USA, with starkly different incidence by race and ethnicity. Our study examines racial and ethnic disparities in confirmed COVID-19 cases across six diverse cities—Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, New York City, San Diego, and St. Louis—at the ZIP code level (covering 436 “neighborhoods” with a population of 17.7 million). Our analysis links these outcomes to six separate data sources to control for demographics; housing; socioeconomic status; occupation; transportation modes; health care access; long-run opportunity, as measured by income mobility and incarceration rates; human mobility; and underlying population health. We find that the proportions of Black and Hispanic residents in a ZIP code are both positively and statistically significantly associated with COVID-19 cases per capita. The magnitudes are sizeable for both Black and Hispanic, but even larger for Hispanic. Although some of these disparities can be explained by differences in long-run opportunity, human mobility, and demographics, most of the disparities remain unexplained even after including an extensive list of covariates related to possible mechanisms. For two cities—Chicago and New York—we also examine COVID-19 fatalities, finding that differences in confirmed COVID-19 cases explain the majority of the observed disparities in fatalities. In other words, the higher death toll of COVID-19 in predominantly Black and Hispanic communities mostly reflects higher case rates, rather than higher fatality rates for confirmed cases.

Suggested Citation

  • Joseph Benitez & Charles Courtemanche & Aaron Yelowitz, 2020. "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19: Evidence from Six Large Cities," Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 243-261, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joerap:v:3:y:2020:i:4:d:10.1007_s41996-020-00068-9
    DOI: 10.1007/s41996-020-00068-9
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s41996-020-00068-9
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Arcaya, Mariana C. & Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D. & Kim, Rockli & Schnake-Mahl, Alina & So, Marvin & Subramanian, S.V., 2016. "Research on neighborhood effects on health in the United States: A systematic review of study characteristics," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 16-29.
    2. Logan, Trevon D. & Parman, John M., 2018. "Segregation and mortality over time and space," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 199(C), pages 77-86.
    3. John McLaren, 2020. "Racial Disparity in COVID-19 Deaths: Seeking Economic Roots with Census data," NBER Working Papers 27407, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. James P. Ziliak, 2021. "Food Hardship during the COVID‐19 Pandemic and Great Recession," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(1), pages 132-152, March.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Alvarez, Camila H. & Evans, Clare Rosenfeld, 2021. "Intersectional environmental justice and population health inequalities: A novel approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 269(C).
    2. Graziella Bertocchi & Arcangelo Dimico, 2020. "COVID-19, Race, and Redlining," EIEF Working Papers Series 2018, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Jul 2020.
    3. Richard Florida & Andres Rodriguez-Pose & Michael Storper, 2020. "Cities in a Post-COVID World," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2041, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Sep 2020.
    4. Ashley W. Kranjac & Justin T. Denney & Rachel T. Kimbro & Brady S. Moffett & Keila N. Lopez, 2019. "Child Obesity and the Interaction of Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 38(3), pages 347-369, June.
    5. Sumedha Gupta & Kosali I. Simon & Coady Wing, 2020. "Mandated and Voluntary Social Distancing During The COVID-19 Epidemic: A Review," NBER Working Papers 28139, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Graziella Bertocchi & Arcangelo Dimico, 2020. "COVID-19, Race, and Redlining," Department of Economics 0175, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    7. Nieuwenhuis, Jaap, 2020. "Neighborhood social capital and adolescents’ individual health development," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 265(C).
    8. Ivaldi, Marc & Palikot, Emil, 2020. "Sharing when stranger equals danger: Ridesharing during Covid-19 pandemic," CEPR Discussion Papers 15202, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Graziella Bertocchi & Arcangelo Dimico, 2020. "COVID-19, Race, and Redlining," CHILD Working Papers Series 80 JEL Classification: I1, Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics (CHILD) - CCA.
    10. Yang, Tse-Chuan & South, Scott J., 2018. "Neighborhood effects on body mass: Temporal and spatial dimensions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 217(C), pages 45-54.
    11. Milena Almagro & Joshua Coven & Arpit Gupta & Angelo Orane-Hutchinson, 2020. "Racial Disparities in Frontline Workers and Housing Crowding during COVID-19: Evidence from Geolocation Data," Opportunity and Inclusive Growth Institute Working Papers 37, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    12. Caitlin S. Brown & Martin Ravallion, 2020. "Inequality and the Coronavirus: Socioeconomic Covariates of Behavioral Responses and Viral Outcomes Across US Counties," NBER Working Papers 27549, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Boylan, Jennifer Morozink & Robert, Stephanie A., 2017. "Neighborhood SES is particularly important to the cardiovascular health of low SES individuals," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 188(C), pages 60-68.
    14. Guisinger, Amy Y., 2020. "Gender differences in the volatility of work hours and labor demand," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    15. Haas, Bridget M. & Berg, Kristen A. & Schmidt-Sane, Megan M. & Korbin, Jill E. & Spilsbury, James C., 2018. "How might neighborhood built environment influence child maltreatment? Caregiver perceptions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 171-178.
    16. Saman Nazir & Cynthia Cready, 2020. "The C-Section Epidemic in Pakistan," PIDE-Working Papers 2020:176, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    17. Michael R. Kramer & Eric B. Schneider & Jennifer B. Kane & Claire Margerison-Zilko & Jessica Jones-Smith & Katherine King & Pamela Davis-Kean & Joseph G. Grzywacz, 2017. "Getting Under the Skin: Children’s Health Disparities as Embodiment of Social Class," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 36(5), pages 671-697, October.
    18. Agovino, Massimiliano & Crociata, Alessandro & Sacco, Pier Luigi, 2019. "Proximity effects in obesity rates in the US: A Spatial Markov Chains approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 220(C), pages 301-311.
    19. Jimenez, Marcia P. & Wellenius, Gregory A. & Subramanian, S.V. & Buka, Stephen & Eaton, Charles & Gilman, Stephen E. & Loucks, Eric B., 2019. "Longitudinal associations of neighborhood socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors: A 46-year follow-up study," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 241(C).
    20. Wang, Chih-Hao & Chen, Na, 2017. "A geographically weighted regression approach to investigating the spatially varied built-environment effects on community opportunity," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 136-147.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    COVID-19; Coronavirus; Racial disparities; Ethnic disparities; Health disparities;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I14 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health and Inequality

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:joerap:v:3:y:2020:i:4:d:10.1007_s41996-020-00068-9. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.