IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Production externalities: internalization by voting


  • Hervé Crès


  • Mich Tvede



We study internalization of production externalities in perfectly competitive markets where production plans are decided by majority voting. Since shareholders want firms to maximize dividends of portfolios rather than profits, they are interested in some internalization. Two governances, namely the shareholder governance (one share, one vote) and the stakeholder democracy (one stakeholder, one vote), are compared. We argue that perfect internalization is more likely to be the outcome of the stakeholder democracy than the shareholder governance. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Hervé Crès & Mich Tvede, 2013. "Production externalities: internalization by voting," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 53(2), pages 403-424, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:53:y:2013:i:2:p:403-424 DOI: 10.1007/s00199-012-0697-z

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1979. "A Theory of Competitive Equilibrium in Stock Market Economies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 293-329, March.
    3. Greenberg, Joseph, 1979. "Consistent Majority Rules over Compact Sets of Alternatives," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(3), pages 627-636, May.
    4. Camelia Bejan, 2008. "The objective of a privately owned firm under imperfect competition," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 37(1), pages 99-118, October.
    5. Birgit Grodal & Egbert Dierker, 1999. "The price normalization problem in imperfect competition and the objective of the firm," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 14(2), pages 257-284.
    6. Stefano Demichelis & Klaus Ritzberger, 2011. "A general equilibrium analysis of corporate control and the stock market," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 46(2), pages 221-254, February.
    7. Hansen, Robert G. & Lott, John R., 1996. "Externalities and Corporate Objectives in a World with Diversified Shareholder/Consumers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(01), pages 43-68, March.
    8. Caplin, Andrew & Nalebuff, Barry, 1991. "Aggregation and Social Choice: A Mean Voter Theorem," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 1-23, January.
    9. Shafer, Wayne & Sonnenschein, Hugo, 1975. "Equilibrium in abstract economies without ordered preferences," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 345-348, December.
    10. Mich Tvede & Hervé Crés, 2005. "Voting in assemblies of shareholders and incomplete markets," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 26(4), pages 887-906, November.
    11. Won, Dong Chul & Yannelis, Nicholas C., 2008. "Equilibrium theory with unbounded consumption sets and non-ordered preferences: Part I. Non-satiation," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(11), pages 1266-1283, December.
    12. Egbert Dierker & Hildegard Dierker, 2012. "Ownership structure and control in incomplete market economies with transferable utility," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 51(3), pages 713-728, November.
    13. Camelia Bejan & Florin Bidian, 2012. "Ownership structure and efficiency in large economies," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 50(3), pages 571-602, August.
    14. Grandmont, Jean-Michel, 1978. "Intermediate Preferences and the Majority Rule," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(2), pages 317-330, March.
    15. Kelsey, David & Milne, Frank, 1996. "The existence of equilibrium in incomplete markets and the objective function of the firm," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 229-245.
    16. Ritzberger, Klaus, 2005. "Shareholder voting," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 69-72, January.
    17. Peter M. DeMarzo, 1993. "Majority Voting and Corporate Control: The Rule of the Dominant Shareholder," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 713-734.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Elena L. Mercato & Vincenzo Platino, 2017. "On the regularity of smooth production economies with externalities: competitive equilibrium à la Nash," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 63(1), pages 287-307, January.
    2. repec:hal:journl:halshs-01162039 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    General equilibrium; Majority voting; Production externalities; Shareholder governance versus stakeholder democracy; Social choice; D21; D51; D72; G39; L21;

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • D51 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Exchange and Production Economies
    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • G39 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Other
    • L21 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Business Objectives of the Firm


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:53:y:2013:i:2:p:403-424. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.