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Nieadekwatność polityki pieniężnej Europejskiego Banku Centralnego w procesie stabilizacji makroekonomicznej w strefie euro

Listed author(s):
  • Zuzanna Urbanowicz
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    Załamanie koniunktury gospodarczej w strefie euro pogłębiło istniejącą nierównowagę na poziomie gospodarek członkowskich i wywołało obawy o stabilność całego ugrupowania. Celem artykułu jest analiza zagadnienia nieadekwatności jednolitej polityki pieniężnej do stabilizacyjnych potrzeb członków heterogenicznej unii walutowej na przykładzie polityki Europejskiego Banku Centralnego (EBC) i strefy euro od początku jej funkcjonowania. Artykuł ma charakter teoretyczny. Przytoczone wyniki badań wskazały, że jednolita polityka pieniężna EBC nie była w jednakowym stopniu dopasowana do potrzeb każdego z krajów strefy euro. Niejednorodna sytuacja gospodarcza państw – członków strefy euro oraz niejednakowa sprawność funkcjonujących w nich mechanizmów dostosowawczych zdają się różnicować skuteczność jednolitej polityki pieniężnej EBC w zakresie kształtowania stabilizacji makroekonomicznej na poziomie całej strefy euro oraz na poziomie każdej z gospodarek. Wydaje się zatem, że podstawę pełnej oceny stabilizacyjnego oddziaływania jednolitej polityki pieniężnej powinna stanowić obserwacja stanu koniunktury na obu wymienionych poziomach analizy. Kryzys w strefie euro uświadomił istnienie silnego związku między stabilnością poszczególnych krajów członkowskich a stabilnością całego ugrupowania. Antykryzysowe działania EBC zmniejszyły prawdopodobieństwo rozpadu strefy euro, niemniej jednak, EBC nie jest w stanie samodzielnie rozwiązać wszystkich problemów gospodarczych o charakterze strukturalnym w strefie euro. Zagwarantowanie pomyślnego funkcjonowania strefy euro pozostaje raczej w gestii krajowych rządów i zależy od kierunku nadawanego przez ich politykę gospodarczą i zdolności do przeprowadzenia trudnych reform strukturalnych.

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    Article provided by Warsaw School of Economics in its journal Gospodarka Narodowa.

    Volume (Year): (2015)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 5-25

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    Handle: RePEc:sgh:gosnar:y:2015:i:4:p:5-25
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