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Zastosowanie zasady równych ofiar do oceny sprawiedliwości taryfy podatku dochodowego od osób fizycznych (PIT) w Polsce

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  • Tymon Słoczyński

Abstract

Celem artykułu jest empiryczna analiza zgodności taryfy podatku dochodowego od osób fizycznych (PIT) w Polsce z zasadą równych ofiar absolutnych, tj. jedną z podstawowych zasad sprawiedliwego podziału obciążeń podatkowych. Do realizacji tego celu zastosowano metody analizy zaproponowane przez Fishera [1927] i Younga [1990]. Metoda Fishera polega na określeniu zmienności ofiar ponoszonych przez podatników zgodnie z pewną, założoną na potrzeby analizy, postacią funkcji użyteczności dochodu. Metoda Younga polega na wyznaczeniu tej spośród izoelastycznych funkcji użyteczności dochodu, która w największym możliwym stopniu zrównuje ofiary ponoszone przez podatników; następnie wyznacza się taryfę podatku, która zrównuje ofiary wszystkich podatników względem otrzymanej funkcji użyteczności dochodu, i porównuje tę taryfę z faktyczną taryfą opodatkowania. Według przeprowadzonej analizy taryfa podatku dochodowego od osób fizycznych (PIT) w Polsce w latach 1999-2008 była dość dobrze dopasowana do wymogów zasady równych ofiar absolutnych a ofiary większości podatników były zrównywane względem sensownych empirycznie funkcji użyteczności. Niemniej, wyróżniono trzy grupy podatników, których obciążenia podatkowe były niższe niż postulowane na gruncie zasady równych ofiar absolutnych, a także opisano zmienność w czasie zgodności taryfy opodatkowania w Polsce z zasadą równych ofiar absolutnych oraz progresywności tej taryfy.

Suggested Citation

  • Tymon Słoczyński, 2012. "Zastosowanie zasady równych ofiar do oceny sprawiedliwości taryfy podatku dochodowego od osób fizycznych (PIT) w Polsce," Gospodarka Narodowa, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 10, pages 23-47.
  • Handle: RePEc:sgh:gosnar:y:2012:i:10:p:23-47
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    sprawiedliwość dystrybutywna; sprawiedliwy podział dóbr; zasada równych ofiar; awersja do nierówności; podatek dochodowy od osób fizycznych (PIT);

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies

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