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Quelle est l'influence du coût du travail sur l'emploi ?

  • Brigitte Dormont

[eng] What is the effect of labor cost on employment ? This paper deals with the problems involved in estimating the demand for labor on French data. More precisely, we focus on the estimation of the long-run wage elasticity of labor demand. In the first section, one surveys the results obtained by various studies. The French macro-econometric models stand apart because their labor demand wage elasticity is equal to 0. In section 2, we present our own estimations. These have been carried out by using aggregate data, a panel of French industries and a panel of French firms. We show that, with some care, one can obtain very similar estimates,whatever the data used. But the values obtained, which lie within the range (- 0.8 ; - 0.5 are rather high and need further investigation. This is the purpose of the third section. Taking into account the simultaneity and heterogeneity bias allow us to lower the wage elasticity of labor demand. Finally, at the micro-econometric level, we observe that the wage elasticity strongly decreases when the skill level is higher. [fre] Quelle est l'influence du coût du travail sur l'emploi ? L'objet de cet article est d'examiner les problèmes posés par l'estimation de la demande de travail sur données françaises en se concentrant sur l'évaluation de l'élasticité emploi-coût salarial. Dans un premier temps, on rappelle les résultats obtenus par différentes études réalisées sur des données étrangères ou françaises. Les modèles macro-économiques français se distinguent par une élasticité emploi-salaire égale à 0. Dans la deuxième partie sont présentées nos propres estimations, lesquelles ont été effectuées conjointement sur des séries temporelles macro-économiques, un panel de secteurs et un panel d'entreprises. On montre que quelques précautions permettent d'aboutir à une élasticité emploi-coût salarial très cohérente, quel que soit le niveau d'agrégation des données. Toutefois la valeur obtenue, comprise entre -0,8 et - 0,5, paraît suffisamment élevée pour mériter quelques questionnements. Tel est l'objet de la troisième partie : la prise en compte des biais de simultanéité et de l'hétérogénéité des comportments permet de réviser à la baisse la relation entre demande de travail et coût salarial. Enfin, au niveau des entreprises, on constate que l'élasticité emploi-coût salarial décroit fortement lorsque la qualification de la main-d'œuvre augmente.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue économique.

Volume (Year): 45 (1994)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 399-414

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Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1994_num_45_3_409533
Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.1994.409533
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